With pediculosis, both children and adults may encounter. Why there are lice even in clean people puzzles many. There are many misconceptions regarding this issue and not everyone knows where the Human is taken from a person from. Therefore, it will not be superfluous to consider the mechanism of infection and possible causes.
The main causes of appearance
The main reason for the appearance of lice is the transfer of them from an infected person.
Thinking about where the lice comes from, it should be remembered that they are ectoparasites (external), and only a person can perform their carrier. It is impossible to pick up the lice through food or from animals.
The main causes of pediculosis:
- A person does not comply with the elementary rules of personal hygiene and has a low cultural level;
- A healthy person closely contacts those who are already infected with pediculosis;
- Home conditions are distinguished by full antisanitia, which contributes to the rapid spread of such parasites;
- a person has a large number of sexual partners, which increases the likelihood of picking up the pubic pediculosis;
- Close contact of children with carriers of disease in children's educational institutions, educational institutions, recreation bases or in playgrounds;
- General use of hats and other individual items of clothing or household, on which there may be a nice of a person infected with pediculose;
- An adult can get infected when visiting public baths, saunas or when using sun beds, towels and other items that were not properly disinfected;
- visiting the hairdressing salons or beauty salons in which elementary hygienic rules are not respected;
- frequent travel trips requiring long stays in trains, as well as accommodation in hostels or hotels;
- Regular movement in the city in crowded public transport;
- crowded queues or public wardrobes in large public places;
- Swimming in pools or standing natural reservoirs.
If the sewers are transmitted from a person to a person, then the explanation of the income coming from somewhat different. Nicky is the eggs of lice. The adult individual postpones about 4 eggs every day. Gids are fixed on hair with the help of a special excretory secret. It solidifies with air in contact, which allows it to firmly firm on her hair. After the bite and the appearance of the GDID on the hair, the time interval may be different.
On the localization of the GDID on the hair, you can assume an approximate time of infection. The primary masonry of eggs is doing as close to the roots of the hair (1 cm). With increasing hair, they spread through the head. The duration of the development of the larva is 1-2 weeks. The hatched individuals are similar to adults, but differ in small dimensions - up to 1 mm. For the week, they are experiencing 3 moles and become hatching lies.
Mechanism of infection with heads
Where do the people come from in the head and what the mechanism of infection - would like to know many. The lice does not jump, do not fly, but only run. Therefore, the infection of lsami is most often happening with direct contact between people. Wrench heads can run between the heads of people in the hair. In a special group of risk are owners of long and thick hair.
From the moment of getting the first individuals in the head of a healthy person and before the appearance of his first signs of pediculosis, 1-3 weeks can pass. Once on the new owner, it is firmly fixed on the hair with the help of the paws and begins to establish life in the new conditions. It feeds the parasite of human blood. It makes me impregnation by punishing the owner's skin with its trunk.
The salivary glands of the lice produce a special enzyme, digesting blood, but not allowing it to turn. In the fields of bites there are small binding, which cause severe itching from the owner. The female puts the eggs and fixes them on the hairproof so that they do not wash off with water. After some time, new individuals of the lush appear from the GDID.
Methods of transmission
How are Vershi from man to man:
- Public places. They are the most potential risk zones. A vivid example of how you can get infected with lice, children's institutions are served. Schools and kindergartens often become foci of outbreaks of pediculosis in childhood.
- Water. A source of infection can also be a liquid medium, since the sews are capable of keeping their livelihoods in it. It is possible to pick up bloodsowing parasites in pools or a rural lake, where water is standing.
- Close contacts. The appearance of lice on the head is possible with close contacts of people. Kisses, sex classes, children's group games in general education institutions - all this can provoke infection with parasites.
- Insufficient level of personal hygiene. We definitely may appear in those who do not adhere to the elementary rules of personal hygiene and live in unsanitary conditions.
- Personal things infected people. Objects of personal use belonging to those who suffer from pediculosis may contain lice or shortenness, so they are of a greater danger to healthy people. If you use the patient's personal belongings, the risk of infection increases significantly.
Some are also interested in whether the lice of animals are transmitted. No, the paths of transmission of pediculosis do not include this method. Etoparasites do not have wings and, unlike Bloch, are not able to jump. They can only transfer from hair or clothing infected person to healthy with direct physical contact.
Can they appear by themselves
Among people there is a common misconception that the lice appear against the background of stress.
Considering such a theory, some are interested in whether the lies can appear by themselves. In fact, the lice is transferred exclusively from infected people, but are not inherited and are not in the latent state on the skin of a person, expecting a suitable case for the active phase.
What do Vershi appear on the head
Optimal conditions for distribution
Sources of propagation of pediculosis are diverse. Places where you can get infected with pediculose most often: kindergarten, school, recreation centers, educational circles, children's clinics. Schools and kindergartens most suffer from this problem. In what conditions are most often infected by adults: prisons, barracks, barracks, communals.
The lice is very infectious and in a special group of risk are faces:
- children of preschool and school age;
- People leading an erratic sex life (pubic pediculosis);
- bums, drug addicts, alcoholics, prisoners;
- Conscripts living in the barracks;
- persons living in hostels, hotels;
- People with a poorly established personal hygiene issue.
Experts note that the losses are most often infected in autumn or winter time, because at this time of the year, people have more time in the premises, closely contacting each other.
Thus, the optimal conditions for the distribution of lice for both children and adults are: antisanitary, crowded people or tesne.
For the time of ripening eggs, the head washing the head does not affect. This period may increase or decline depending on the ambient temperature. On average, a new person appears in 5-8 days.
Primary insect bites are not a manifestation of pediculosis. In addition, the activity of 2-3 individuals infected may not even feel. But after 3-4 weeks, they manage to develop larvae, which to join their adult relatives in the parasitic lifestyle. And if all this time does not affect them, several generations can be derived. At this stage, the patient begins to experience unbearable itch.
The causes of the outbreaks of pediculose include climate mitigation, as well as frequent re-infection, which arises against the background of the lack of simultaneous treatment in the school team or in the family circle. Often, the insufficient awareness of parents about pediculose is becoming not enough, as well as the improper use of anti-playing agents.
In order for the pediculosis does not apply to a large number of people, it is necessary to identify and isolate media in a timely manner.
Pediculosis (Pediculosis - from lat. "Environment") - a parasitic human disease, manifested by the skin of the skin in the place of bitees of lice.
On a person can parasitize three types of lice:
- Headwash Pediculus Humanus Capitis causes a head pediculosis;
- Handling (Nutty) Pediculus Humanus Corporis - wrapping pediculosis;
- Lobcovaya Loader (Bleers) Phthirus Pubis L. - pubic pediculosis, or FTIRIAZ (PHTHEIRIASIS - from Greek. "Praise") [one] .
Pediculosis is distributed in all countries of the world. The disease affects all segments of the population - we can info accidentally, and not only with bad hygiene (for example, leaning on the head restraint in the train car or engage in contact sports on the carpet / tatami).
In the US, pediculosis is diagnosed with 6-12 million children from 3 to 11 years. The incidence rate in Russia is 178-224 cases per 100,000 population (about 300,000 patients annually) [one] . If you assess the incidence rate on the number of pediculicide funds sold, then it will be higher at least 3-4 times. In France, pediculosis is celebrated in 49% of the population, in Israel - in 20%, in the United Kingdom - in 25%  .
The disease occurs in both sexes, but girls are sick more often than boys. Pediculosis is less likely to meet in African Americans, possibly due to differences in the structure of the hair. Although in Africa, lice and adapted to capture non-cylindrical hair, the percentage of occurrence here is only 3.7%  .
The lice is transferred from the hair to the hair, they do not know how to jump and fly from one person to another without direct contact. However, Versh knows how to move at a speed of 23 centimeters per minute. How is infection:
- with direct contact with infected, especially in organized teams (schools, boarding schools, kindergartens or camps) at any close contact;
- In contact with infected things - other people's headgear, hair brushes, hair accessories, mobile phone, towel, etc.;
- To infection pubic, we need close physical contact (sexual, common bed, underwear);
- Young children and babies are infected from parents through the general bed or when breastfeeding [four] .
Manifestations are the same for all types of pediculosis. The severity of the local reaction depends on the immunological reactivity of the body.
- Itching the scalp, body, crotch, leading to the appearance of calculations.
- The feeling that in the hair and / or on the body "something moves".
- Papulosno-urticular red rash (Papoolese urticaria).
- An increase in lymph nodes, when headed pediculosis - occipient or ear, with a pubic group.
- In the case of attaching a bacterial infection (pyodermia) - the appearance of purulent crusts.
With a long lack of treatment and hygienic events arise:
- Koltun is a glued mass of hair, lice, nnid, crust and leather scraps.
- "Leather vagrant" - common skin pigmentation, its thickening (liquidification), peeling, erosive surfaces.
At the site of the pubic bite, the Specific Blue Spots remain - Macula Coerulea, similar to small bruises.
Sometimes there are pediculites - rashes away from the focus of the lesion caused by auto-generalization (increased sensitivity of the body to allergens of their own tissues) and resembling rashes during allergies or viral infections [thirteen] .
Switch feeds blood, plunging with its trunk to the skin. In the bite in the wound, saliva insect is hung, which is for the body alien. Finding into the blood, the secret causes the reaction of the immune system, which is manifested by itching and redness of the skin at the place of bite. Itching leads to an irritation and numerous skin calculations. Skin damage, in turn, are entrance gates for various infections.
It is reported that up to 30% of patients with pubic pediculosis have more than one infection transmitting sexually transmitted. In recent years, some regions have a sharp decrease in incidence of phyrichasis. Researchers are associated with a popular cosmetology procedure at the moment - the epilation of the bikini zone. Infection does not happen, since we are not suitable for attaching  .
An inflammatory response from the lymph nodes in the damage zone is also possible - their increase and soreness.
There are three forms of pediculosis: head, wraising and pubic. There is also a mixed form.
Head pediculosis caused by a headwash. It parasitates on the scalp and neck.
Headdling is an exceptionally human parasite that is not transmitted from animals or animals. This is a loosen insect with a gray-white body 2-4 mm (seed seed size). After the owner does not eat, the abdomen becomes red. Switch has 6 claws, which are suitable for habitat on the hair of a circular cross section (hair on the head, mustache, beard).
Head lunch postpones eggs (incoming) on the hair rod. The nits are covered with a protective shell and are equipped with a cap. Their length is 1 mm, they are tightly attached to the hair with a special adhesive agent, sometimes they are mistaken for dandruff. The number of GDIDs can reach several thousand (one loss in its life gives offspring in 200-300 individuals). Live crides (with egg) - cream-yellow color, unwanted (without eggs) - white.
After 8-10 days, when compliance with the temperature regime (+28 ° C - the heat of the head of the head) from the inclination of the lunch nymph, it grows, tolerates several lines and becomes an adult person in 10-15 days, pairing and begins to give offspring. Adults can survive without a host up to 55 hours.
Rich eggs close to the eggs. When the hair is growing, the nits are moved away from the skin surface. Knowing that the speed of hair growth is 0.5 mm / day, you can calculate when the infection occurred. For example, if the nider is detected at a distance of 15 cm from the skin, the infection occurred about 9 months ago [five] .
Harding pediculosis Called by a wrapping that lives on clothes and sometimes moves to the skin to eat. The reaction is the same as on the bites of the head lice.
Having a wrapping (native) loss has an oval shape, it is larger than the head. Lives and postponed shorts in linen seams or clothes. We are more often found in insufficiently clean people who do not change clothes for a long time or rarely wash. Lives 18 days. The females lay about 300 GNIDs, after 8-10 days nymphs-lice hatch, which in 14 days become adults. Without food can live up to 24 hours. Being on the skin, cling to the hairs. After the bite on the body, there are spots size with a bull head with hemorrhage (hemorrhage into the skin) in the center. The favorite localization is the places of close contact with the fabric (waist, loin, neck, leg). Studies have shown that the head and wrench are representatives of one species. It is believed that the wrapped owner occurred from the head, when people began to wear clothes  .
Fitter Pediculous (FTIRAZ) caused by pubic lsham. These insects mainly live on the pubic, less often in the axillary depressions, on the chest, the eyelashes of the upper eyelids. The disease is manifested by itching, rash and calculations. The pubic loss is also called crab. The name comes from an enlarged cushion-like second and third pair of feet, which give it the type of crab. With a lot of worship, they can be found on the eyelashes, eyebrows and beard. Lobcovaya Loading almost round shape, its length is 1-1.5 mm. It is very tightly cling to the skin and tear it almost impossible. Each female during its 30-day life cycle is postponing about 2-3 servings of 25 eggs at the base of hairs. After 6-8 days, nymphs hatch and start to eat right away  . Without food die within 24 hours.
Classification of pediculosis for the flow: uncomplicated, complicated  .
- Collecting complaints and refinement of epidemiological history: there is no quarantine in kindergarten or school, sick houses.
- Visual inspection with the use of a comb for hair trimming.
- Inspection with a magnifying glass (especially relevant to identify signs of pubic pediculose - blue spots).
- Inspection under the Wood lamp. Living nits give glow, unnaviable - no [eleven] .
- Dermatoscopy can be used to distinguish live crides from empty.
- Microscopy and bacteriological sowing from leather is necessary to confirm the impetigo (secondary bacterial infection Surface layers of skin ) and determining its sensitivity to drugs.
It should be noted that the pubic lice on the skin of the head, eyelashes and eyebrows in children can be a sign of sexual violence  .
Hospitalization during pediculose is not carried out with the exception of cases when there are special indications: adverse sanitary and hygienic living conditions, the inability to independently ensure the necessary therapy. Treatment is carried out at home. Isolation of the patient, as well as conducting anti-epidemic and disinsection measures.
Pediculose treatment is aimed at destroying the pathogen at all stages of the life cycle. Assigning treatment, the patient must be explained how to use the drug (method of application, exposure time, multiplicity of treatments). In case of non-compliance with the recommendations, the risk of unsuccessful treatment, as well as the development of the insensitivity of lice to therapy drugs. When charging a pediculosis, the processing of patients and their things should be carried out by special licensed disinfectological organizations. For disinfection of premises, furniture, as well as linen, clothing and bedding use pediculicidal agents in aerosol.
In therapy, three methods are used: mechanical, physical and chemical. Additional treatment methods are required in the development of complications.
Mechanical method Removal of lice is suitable in case of single individuals. At the same time, a special comb with small teeth (the distance between the teeth is 0.2-0.3 mm). How to apply:
- Wet and comb hair to prevent confusion (you can use balm or hair air conditioner before this).
- Put a comb so that she touches the skin of the head. Combure all hair at least twice. After each eligibility, it is necessary to inspect the comb and be sure to handle it with boiling water or 70% alcohol solution  .
To facilitate the deduction of the GDID on the eve of it is recommended to apply vaseline oil or a combined drug containing coconut, anise and oil ylang-ylang  .
Evidence evaluating mechanical removal as an alternative to pediculicide therapy is limited and contradictory.
Physical method It implies the destruction of lice by exposure to high or low temperatures. In everyday life, boiling linen, stroking clothes with a hot iron. Things that are not to be washed can be treated in steam-formaline, steam and combined disinfecting chambers and in air disinsection chambers. These methods are considered fairly effective.
Chemical method Based on the use of pediculicides - preparations intended for the destruction of lice. There are funds in the form of lotions, shampoos, soap, emulsion concentrates, means in aerosol packaging, etc. The treatment uses:
- Permethrin 1% cream rinse or 5% cream. Sold without a recipe, is a reasonable preparation of the first choice for the treatment of pediculosis, if no resistance to it has been proven. The tool is applied to the hair dried by a towel, after 10 minutes, rinsed with warm water. FDA approved (Food and Drug Administration - Food and Drug Admin Control Administration) for the treatment of lice in adults and children over 2 months old. The drug does not act on the income, therefore, after 7-10 days, re-processing is recommended for the destruction of the lice, which at the time of the first processing have not yet hatched. Third processing for 13-15 days may be required to remove the survivors and hatched nymph.
- Pyrethrins / Piperonyl Butoxide (gel, shampoo, solution for external use) applied on dry hair for 10 minutes, can be effective, but data on resistance (stability) of lice to these drugs appear [eighteen] . In this case, it is recommended to use alternatives with another mechanism of action.
2. Phosphorian compounds (FOS):
- Malation 0.5% solution. More effective than permethrin. It is applied on dry hair, after 8-12 hours is washed off with shampoo. FDA approved for the local treatment of pediculose in adults and children over 16-18 years old. It can be recommended if suspicion of resistance to play permeter. Kills 88% of the lice in 10 minutes and 100% of the past 20 minutes  .
- Fention. As an active substance, it is included in drugs either independently (20%, 24%), or in combination with permethrine (total concentration - 10%, 20%); According to the manufacturer's instructions, the concentration of the working emulsion is from 0.1% to 0.25%  .
3. Benzylbenzoate 20% It is part of the preparations against the lice in the form of a spray (exposure time - 30 minutes, single treatment) and in the form of a lotion (shutter speed - 10 minutes, single processing). Benzyl alcohol 5% is effective to eliminate living lice. Applied on dry hair for 10 minutes once a week for 2 weeks. FDA approved for the treatment of lice. The most common adverse reactions include itching, erythema (limited redness of the skin) and eye irritation  .
4. polydimethylsiloxanes (dimethics) - These are synthetic silicone oils that have high security and efficiency in relation to lice. There are in the form of lotion and spray. Dimeticone blocks the respiratory system of lice, as a result of which they die. There is evidence that dimethicons are effective and in relation to the GDID  . It is necessary to apply a lotion on dry hair from the base to the tips and on the skin of the head, give the hair to dry the natural way, leave for 8 hours (or overnight), then washed off with ordinary shampoo. Repeat the course of treatment after 7-10 days. Dimetics are used in the shape of a shampoo containing Mineral oil of Clearol (69.25%). Shampoo withstand 10 minutes, re-processing is carried out after 7-10 days  .
5. Miristinic acid isopropyl ester (Isopropylmiristat) is used in the form of a liquid that contains a mixture of isopropylmiristat (50%) and cyclomethicone (50%). The drug is applied for 10 minutes, after 7-10 days carry out re-processing  .
6. Anise and cloves essential oils They are considered a fairly effective method of treating a head pediculosis. They are used in the form of alcohol lotion, withstand 30 minutes. Quite single treatment  .
Treatment of pregnant and lactating women
This group of patients in the case of a headaculose is allowed to prescribe a permeter solution prepared from 5% emulsion concentrate in ethanol, or a lotion containing 4% of dimethicones.
Treatment of children
Most drugs against lice are allowed to apply from 5 years. An exception:
- 1% permeter-based gel is permitted to use in children from 1 year. The gel is withstanding 40 minutes, quite a single use.
- The preparation containing a mixture of malathion and permethrin (0.5% and 1%, respectively) and peperonylbutoxide synergist (4%) is allowed to use from 2.5 years. The drug needs to withstand 10 minutes, a single processing is required.
With a concomitant allergic disease (atopic dermatitis), it is recommended to consult with a dermatologist for an individual selection of the drug.
In case of lesions of the eyelashes, they are lubricated with vaseline 2 times a day for 7-8 days or an eye ointment with a physostyrine is used 2 times a day for 1-2 days.
Treatment of pediculosis complicated by secondary bacterial infection
Apply outdoor therapy: drying by any antiseptics (solutions of aniline dyes, povedium-iodine, etc.). For the purpose of the doctor, antibacterial therapy is introduced local or systemic.
Oral preparations are not approved by the FDA for the treatment of lice, but are sometimes used to treat hardly withdrawn heads:
- Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 5 mg / kg twice a day in combination with a permethrine can increase the rate of cure.
- Overtal Ivermectin 400 μg / kg with a re-dose after 7 days
It is not recommended in treatment:
- Use vaseline, vinegar, mayonnaise, butter or margarine, vegetable oils. The lice is able to close their respiratory tract, not allowing the penetration of oil substances into them, and open them again when the substance is washed away. Treatment with these substances is not able to kill a significant number of lice  .
- Dry the head with a hairdryer using hot air, it can lead to the fact that Vershi will be in the air and fall on other people
- Shave the head (effectively, but inexpedient)
- Use flammable or toxic substances such as gasoline or kerosene  .
- Use vinegar, acetone, bleach, vodka and lubrication WD-40. These substances negatively affect the hair and the skin of the head and depress the healing activity of the permethrin.
- Use sprays-dyes, painting insects and gnides in bright neon colors. Such funds do not kill the lice, in addition, they reduce the efficiency of the permethrin. Not recommended by the National Pediculture Association due to lack of research on safety and efficiency.
Forecast For life when pediculose is favorable. Against the background of treatment, most patients recover without any distant consequences. Recurrements are possible in the following cases:
- In case of non-compliance with medical prescriptions;
- in violation of the instructions for use in the drug;
- with an incorrect choice of dosage form (for example, shampoo);
- In the absence of a repeated course of therapy;
- in case of re-infection;
- in the case of saving live GDIDs;
- When resistance to anti-speaking agents  .
- Do not use objects that may be sewing: other people's headdresses, calculations, hair accessories, clothing, towels, bed linen.
- Avoid direct contact "Head to Head".
- Perform regular hygiene measures: daily cleaning of premises, disinfection of calculus and brushes, regular laundry and clothes.
- To combat lice in school and kindergartens, training programs for children and parents can be useful.
In case of infection:
- Until full recovery, felling pediculosis is not allowed for classes in kindergarten or school. Extract is possible with a three-time negative result of inspection for the presence of lice and GNID.
- After recovery, the observation is carried out within 1 month. This is necessary in case not enough effective treatment or re-infection.
- All family members and contact (1 time in 10 days) are examined. When identifying the living lice or the GDID within 1 cm from the head of the head, a reservation is required.
- Preventive use of permethrin 1% is permissible massively only when the team is defeated by more than 20% and at direct home contacts  .
- Human skin lesion, which is caused by parasites - in lies.
For some reason, a large number of people think that Vershi is the disease of the past, but in fact, and in modern times the pediculosis is quite frequent.
Many of us remember the "luxury moments" in their childhood, when the parents and grandmothers treated the head with gasoline and put the trees on top, and then the remaining lice and shorts in their hair were crushed. But it is at best, after all, whatever shame was, especially for girls, when it was necessary to construct all the hair, so that it was easier to get rid of non-supported insects.
Most often, children are infected with heads, but tolerate adults.
In places of residence of a large cluster of people, where antisanitarian flourishes, the pasting is almost always (asocial large families, gypsy ties, shelters for people without a certain place of residence, villages, where there is no free access to water for hygienic procedures and so on).
Frames of pediculosis in organized children's teams (summer children's camps, boarding schools, shelters, kindergartens, junior school classes, including related to elite institutions, and so on). But closed adult teams can also be "cooked": the barracks of the military, the place of imprisonment, psychiatric hospitals, and so on.
In large cities, the homeless people particularly contribute to the spread of all types of parasites, and "night butterflies" are often a source of pubic lice.
In history, there are a lot of descriptions of the Pediculose epidemic, this is quite an ancient disease, even Herodotes (5 centuries BC) described the need to shave the naked people of high ranks so that no lunch would be closed.
Scientists believe that the sews are alive since the times and until a person lives on the planet.
In many classic literary works of the whole world, scenes are also described with lice (at M. Sholokhov, L. Tolstoy, V. Shakespeare, A. Chekhov, N. Gogol, A. Solzhenitsyn, R. Artur and many other classics).
And in the Bible there is a mention of the lice, when Herod died, from him "... Treki Vershi, like a spring, which flows out of the ground ...".
Especially high, the head of the Wrench raised during wars, hunger strikes, natural disasters. But not so dangerous were the lice themselves like thoseinfection
They transferred. Many historical facts indicating that during wars, most of the soldiers died not from the wounds obtained, but fromRaw typhus
carried by lsham.Some statistics!
Pediculosis is common worldwide, and prosperous developed countries without exception. According to the World Health Organization, annually billions of people are in contact with entertainers. And every second moved this trouble for himself at least once in life.
The official indicators of "stiffness" accurately find out practically not possible, since most people do not pay for epidemic treatment into sanitary institutions, and they independently cope with parasites at home. After all, the problem is very ticker and intimate, people are afraid of publicity.
Top 15 The most common myths about pediculose
- Myth number 1: "Vershi is a disease of the poor" . Nobody is protected from pediculosis, as it will not be completely isolated from the outside world even money.
- Myth number 2: "Vershi do not affect people with painted hair." We have absolutely not delicious hair, they need skin and blood, so painted hair is not an obstacle for them. On the other hand, with an already existing pediculose, hair coloring due to ammonia can partially kill parasites.
- Myth # 3: "Versh suffer HIV." Fortunately, nor lice nor other HIV insects are transferred, as the virus is very quickly destroyed by the enzyme system of lice or mosquitoes.
- Myth # 4: "Vership love a special group of blood." The blood group is absolutely not important, they prefer and digest absolutely any "menu from human blood."
- Myth number 5: "Vshamy can be infected with animals" . In animals can also be lice, but another species, and the causative agent of pediculosis - human and pubic loss, dwells only on the human body, and, on the contrary, the lives of animals do not go to us. Interesting! For many animals, a special kind of lice is characterized, for example, camels, elephants, deer, seals, hare, swine lice and so on.
- Myth number 6: "Skid jumps or flying from one person to another." The anatomy of lice does not allow you to move in a different way, except to slowly transfer with a speed of 23 cm per minute. Therefore, the lice is transferred directly through direct contact with a sick person or care objects.
- Myth number 7: "The pubic lines are transferred only during sexual contact." Although sexual contact is the main way to transfer the pubic lice, but this type of parasites can be picked up in public places (baths, pool), as well as in contact with personal hygiene objects.
- Myth number 8: "Vice loves only long hair." Such needed hair to be closed to it and have free access to the skin, the length of the hair from 3-4 mm is sufficient for it.
- Myth number 9: "Vership love only dirty hair" . But in fact, we like the pure skin of the head more, as it is easier for her to penetrate the skin without a layer of thick skin fat.
- Myth number 10: "The lice penetrate inside the skin of a person" . It is also not so, the lice cannot penetrate the skin, their anatomy allows you to cling to hair or fabric vintage, there to live, sleep and multiply, and human skin is only a "feed".
- Myth №11: "It is believed that the lice from the head can be completely composed using a thick crest" . Mechanical removal of parasites and GDIDs gives efficiency only to 40%, while chemical methods (insecticide applications) give 98%.
- Myth №12: "Wrench do not survive without a person." Vershi can live without blood in the environment for one week, during this time it is very easy to find a new victim. So very often, people are infected on the beach, where the parasites may wait in the sand or when using "public pillows" (in children's teams, hospitals, and so on).
- Myth №13: "Insurance is only an unpleasant disease that disturb the aesthetics of the body, and after processing with special drugs you can forget about them." Unfortunately, it is not. In young children, pregnant, allergies, people with reduced immunity, Vershi can leave complications in the form of chronic skin diseases, and also provoke a pronounced allergic reaction. And these parasites carry particularly dangerous infections - rapid and returnful types.
- Myth №14: "Alcohol in the blood is the best prevention from different parasites." Special research on this topic was not carried out, but statistics indicate that people who are dependent on alcohol and drugs are even more often a pediculose than people without bad habits.
- Myth №15: "Vice love dandruff, as they feed with epidermis scales." Switch - the bloodstream parasite, do not feed on any other discharges and parts of the human body.
- People of the Nero-shaped race Pediculose is sick less often than people of the "white-skinned" race, perhaps, this is due to the fact that dark skin is thicker, adapted to harsh weather conditions, and it is hard to contact the lice.
- Hardwoods are more common in poor countries With low levels of sanitation (for example, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, African countries and others).
- Versa learn their owner themselves, When the body temperature drops sharply (in the case of his death) or vice versa increases (fever of various origins), since for the most comfortable temperature itself is from 33 to 36 оFROM.
- Vershi according to classification belong to the subclass of double insects, But they have no wings, but they have a similar structure of the respiratory tube. Perhaps flying insects were predecessors of lice.
Padiculza - Vershi
Position of lice in the structure of living beings
|Family||Pediculds, Fthirida||Pediculidae, PHtiridae.|
|Types of lice parasitizing people||Loku human - It has persistent forms of one species that can move in each other under special conditions through several generations:||Pediculus Humanus.|
|Pediculus Humanus Capitis|
|Pediculus Humanus Vestimenti|
Human and pubic lice belong to the small, sucking secondary-outless insects parasitizing only on the human body.
For convenient parasiting on the skin of a person, lice hasSpecial fixtures:
- Flat body ,
- Short chain legs At the end of the limbs there are special moving claws, allowing you to hardly hold on and move around the hair or skin of a person (like a mulite one).
- Small sizes
- swing-sucking machine - leather piercing adaptation for host blood extraction,
- The possibility of gluing eggs (GDID) To hair or vile, which allows the lice to multiply "without loss",
- Breathe-helping machine (Dychavtsa) are not located on the head, but on the trousement, that he does not distract the VCHA from meals.
- chitine coating - a solid outer sheath covering the main part of the body of the Wrench, the main function of which is the protection of lice from mechanical, physical and chemical factors.
- In the pubic wishes There are also additional grows with villicks on the trouser and more developed legs, on the lower legs larger twisted claws, which allows them to parasitize on the skin with a less pronounced hair than the scalp,
- The olfactory apparatus in the form of a mustache Each species attracts a special smell of glands located on one or another site of human skin, which determines the place of parasitization of a particular type of lice.
- Head It has a rhombus shape, it is located a piercing-sucking rotter, a pair of assholes and simple eyes - the sense of smell and touch.
- Chest It has a mold of a trapezium, three pairs of legs with curls are attached to it at the ends, and the chest bears the breathaf.
- Abdomen It has the form of an oval or a circle, divided by nine segments. The segments from the 3rd to the 8th are pores of the trach, and on the 9th segment there is an end of the digestive tube, through which the feces are distinguished in the form of black small sticks. In the feces of human lice there may be pathogens of diseases (rapid, return title), when combing skin, they, together with feces, can get into the blood of a person. On the trousers are also sexual bodies. In the females on the 9th segment, a sexual opening opens with genuine organs (honeybeats), while the end of the abdomen they are forked. Honeybeats are capable of fixing on the hair for postponvement of the GDID, of which the sticky adhesive is distinguished, thanks to which the nits are firmly attached to the hair or vigor. And the males, the end of the abdomen is rounded, also in the 9th segment the sexual opening opens, from which the sexual body is coming out, which is a hint strip.
The rice apparatus of Versh is located in a special vagina.The components of the piercing-sucking oral river apparatus:
- Retooth hole In which hooks are located from chitin, with the help of them, the lush is embroidered to the skin of a person during blood sucking.
- Style - Three stitching needles that are combined in the sting, with the help of it there is a puncture of the skin,
- Pullpipe - It has the ability to pulsate that as a pump mechanism, sucks blood from the oral cavity to the intestinal tube.
During sucking, the position changes its position on the perpendicular plane with respect to the skin surface.
The types of lice parasitizing on a person.
Distinctive characteristics of the types of lice parasitizing on a person
|The size||Up to 1.5 mm||2-4 mm||1-3 mm|
|Color||From white and gray to yellow, brown and red (depending on the degree of satiety)||Gray, darker head lice.||Gray-brown|
|The form||oblong||oblong||Round, flat|
|Features of the structure||Small, slim paws.||Larger than head lice, paws thicker, cohesive are more developed.||Wider body at the expense of the breast. On the trouser, additional grows - Vile. The lower pair of the paws is the most advanced, the claws on them are larger, twisted.|
|Place parasitis on a man's body||Maspress part of the head.||On the body of a person, on clothes or bedding.||The purest part of the genital organs, the area of the anal opening, less likely, during the struck cases, the regions of the armpits, eyebrows, mustache, beard, eyelashes.|
|Diseases that cause lice||Head Pediculose||Harding Pediculose||Lobonic pediculosis or fatiriasis.|
|What lice look like|
|Place of postponus GDID||Throughout the length of hair||On man's clothes, especially in folds, under the seams, often not everyone is visible to the naked eye||On the bills as close as possible to the human body, the hair on the bulbs.|
|Number of GNIDs postponed per day||up to 4||from 6 to 14||Average 3.|
|What a niddle looks like|
|Source of infection infections|| ||The pubic lice of infections are not transferred.|
Western life cycle
- Fertilization - Perhaps immediately after the transition of the larvae in an adult person.
- Shipping Yaitz - happens in two days after fertilization. Eggs can be postponed and without fertilization, but they are "empty." At the same time, the adhesive mass is distinguished from the honey, intended for sticking the inclination to the hair or vigor.
- Giddy - Eggs of lice, have an oval shape, small, size up to 1 mm, straw color. From above there is a lid through which the larva will hatind. The harde is attached to the hair with a glue mass, which forms an egg stigma and is a nest for eggs. The term of ripening of the income from 4 to 13 days.
- Lichwood Three stages pass: the first, second and third nymph. Each Nymph Development Stage lasts 1 to 5 days. Nymphs differ between themselves with dimensions, in structure similar to an adult form, but are not able to multiply. At the end of each stage, the larvae is linked - change their chitinous cover. After the third linky links become an adult. Feeding the larvae begin almost immediately after hatpons (after an hour and a half), and feed, like all children, often up to 8 times a day.
- Adult Insect (Imago) - Half-cream lush, that is, it is capable of multiplying. IMAO feeds on 2-3 times a day, food reception lasts from 3 to 10 minutes.
- parasitization on the human body
- Temperature from 22 to 45 оC, optimally - from 32 to 36 оFROM,
- Humidity - from 70 to 80% than wetting air, the better parasites.
- in environmental conditions, outside of a person,
- prolonged fevers (malaria, yellow fever, sepsis and other states),
- decrease in body temperature less than 22 оWith (after the death of the owner)
- humidity less than 20-30%,
- Impact of insecticides (chemical preparations for insect destruction).
- in water - 2 days,
- Sometimes they can temporarily parasitize on rabbits, pigs and other animals as a "snack", but it can lead to their death,
- On items and tissues - from 12 hours to 10 days, depending on temperature and humidity.
- long stay outside the human body (more than 10 days, under adverse conditions of temperature and dryness - from 12 hours),
- The use of special insecticides,
- thermal treatment with high temperatures (on the surrounding items, and not on the human body) - boiling, ironing, burning,
- freezing low temperatures.
Ways to transfer pediculosisSource of infection of lshami
- A person on which the lice parasites is not dependent on the degree of assuming.
- Contact Path - A close contact with a person suffering from a pediculose, in which, the lice is overwhelmed with the hair, body or things of a healthy person, perhaps a random (or special) pitching of parasites from the old owner on the new. Head ensight to get used very easily.
- Transmission through lease objects: towels, combs, washcloths; hairpins, gum; honeycombs, caps (including hoods), scarves; Pillows, mattresses and others. After using the objects of life with patients with pediculose people, they can save lice for some time, which are clogged to a new owner with close contact. In items and things can also ripen the nisses, which over time turn into adult individuals. Most often through the honeycomb things are transferred by wraps, through hats - headings, through underwear - pubic.
- Sexual transmission - The main path of infection with pubic lies. With close contact of the pubic areas, the blisters climb on the new owner
- Through water - In places of mass bathing of people (beaches of rivers, lakes, seas, pools). In the water, Versh can live around 2 days, so when bathing it is quite possible to hit the new owner. Also, Vershi can be overwhelmed from sand, on the beach, from the sandbox.
After entering the new owner, the lice moves to favorite easily accessible places for parasitization. Depending on the stage of its life cycle (larva or imago), immediately or after ripening, begin to postpone the inclination and multiply. Each adult is a daily postponing eggs throughout the whole life: a headwash - up to 4 pieces per day, a wrapping - up to 16 pieces, pubic - up to 3 pieces.Each female of the lice is changing during his adult existence from several tens to two hundred descendants.
So, the "settled" new owner, the chrises are quickly ready to spread on others.
The fastest head and wrench are distributedin places of large crowd of people
(children's teams, public transport, hostels, communes, barracks, prisons and so on). And also in places with unsanitary conditions, where they do not care for the body, things and objects of care (habitat of homeless, asocial families, places of imprisonment, shelters, places where there is no free access to water).
The most quickly spread human lice (head and wrapped).
In places where the pediculose was identified at least one person, is called an epidemic hearth.Pediculza epidemic
- This is the spread of pediculosis, which exceeds several times the incidence characteristic of a certain region and season. The epidemic threshold of pediculosis for each region or country is different.Why do children often sick head pediculosis?
Children are in contact with other children daily, while during games they do not follow the distance towards each other. Also can confuse their personal hygiene objects or things with strangers, sleep on each other's pillows, lice can also stay on toys (especially soft).
Symptoms of pediculosis
|Symptom||Mechanism of origin||How does it manifest?||What does it look like?|
|Itch||The lice on the skin is crawling, it is irritated by the skin on the legs, they suck the blood, while they are embroidered with hooks in the o'clock cavity, empty. All these factors act on the nerve skin receptors, and itching is a signal for the brain, to the fact that on the skin - foreign creatures requiring elimination. Also, saliva, containing an allergy protein for the body, is also released Pi, containing an allergic reaction to the skin.||Itching is very pronounced, while the patient can comb skin to the blood, while the wounds are additionally infected, guns are formed, which increases itching, which may be accompanied by pain and burning.||Gnoves with a head pediculosis, which appeared as a result of combing the scalp.|
|Sweeping on the skin||The rash on the skin during pediculose - the places of insect bites, appear as a result of the disorder of the integrity of the skin with staining of the lice. Immunity responds to any skin damage to inflammation, and inflammation is always manifested by redness, an unpleasant feeling, an increase in local blood circulation, edema. The action of the saliva of the lice (alien protein) also aggravates these symptoms.||The rashes appear in the places of the cluster of the lice, are accompanied by itching. The main elements of the rash are red spots and papulas (seals), when infected in their place, the pustulas (guns) or vesicles (bubbles) are developing.||Sweeping on the body at wraens|
|The appearance of pigment spots||Pigment stains appear on the site of rashesov, as a result of the mass decay of hemoglobin from red blood cells, in its essence - chronic bruises.||First there are small sections of pigmentation - dark blue, then they merge and the blue can become the whole body of a person (with a capped pediculose, its long-term flow, pronounced wrapper).||Lesion of the skin with a long-term course of wrapping pediculosis|
|Identifying GDID||On hair or clothing during pediculosis, you can always reveal the eggs of insects - nits, the mandatory period of the parasite life cycle. Adults are not always possible to see if not looking purposefully, and the income is visible to the naked eye, the more there are always more of them than the parasites themselves.||Night cuts up to 1 mm, oval shape, white-gray, translucent. They are located along the entire length of the hair, can resemble beads (on the head or pubis) or on the involving side of the clothing - with a wrapping pediculose. If not to look closely, the cuts resemble dandruff. Nickides are seriously removed from the hair, with their crushing, a characteristic crack appears.||Gida heads Lobkov Nesh|
|Detection of individuals themselves||Vershi - Padiculose pathogens, they can always be seen, especially with a thorough inspection. With pronounced sequity, adult individuals can crawl into the skin of the face, body, on things.||On your head, you can reveal the lice of the oblong shape of brown or yellowish, whitish shades, by having a scallop over a bright cloth, on the pubic part - when scratching the skin, parasites can disappear - light rounded. Hardwoods are clearly visible on clothes, especially in folds, seams.||Head Lush Lobkovy Vershi Hardwashing lice|
|Violation of the psychological state||The presence of lice is always accompanied by the owner's disgust. Permanent itching interferes to sleep, man is tired, annoyed. Many people have pediculosis perceive as a personal shame.||A person can withstand up to 75 thousand at the same time parasitic individuals, and then the patient's death is possible, at the same time, psychological and neurological factors play not a latter role.|
Depending on the type of pathogen, the age of the patient and the degree of assuming, clinical manifestations are based on the localization and degree of symptoms.
Features of symptoms in various types of pediculosis
- Head Pediculose - Only hairy parts of the scalp are affected. The lice is more parasitized on areas with thinner and delicate skin - temporal and occipital area, neck, area behind the ears. In the same areas, symptoms of pediculosis (itching, rash) are more pronounced. The nits are postponed along the entire length of the hair. Bites, rashes and combs on the rear surface of the neck with a head pediculosis. Head pediculosis, unarmed look resembles dandruff. When combing the ridge, you can attack the parasite.
- Harding Pediculose - Handling lice feed on the skin of the body and human limbs, rest and multiply on clothes. Favorite places - rear and inner surfaces of the thighs, the axillary regions, the lower part of the abdomen, the side surfaces of the chest. The number of simultaneously parasitizing individuals is much larger than with other types of pediculosis. Itching is often intolerable, spreads throughout the body. Raschets, rashes, guns are common for a larger skin surface, often after the healing of the elements of the rash appear pigment spots, with a long-term process of the disease, all skin skin can be bluish. For wrapping pediculosis, violations of the neurophecical state of the patient are characteristic. With the suppuration of large areas of the skin, it is possible to increase the temperature, the appearance of intoxication (headache, weakness, fatigue, nausea, and so on). When inspecting the skin of the crides of the worshi and individuals themselves, they usually do not reveal, but when examining clothes, a huge number of lice and emerging, pending tight towards friend detects. When the pediculosis is paid, it is possible to infect with a rapid or returnful typhus, the Volyn fever. With the appearance of symptoms of these diseases, it is necessary to urgently isolate and hospitalize the patient, so they relate to particularly dangerous diseases that can lead to death, and the wrenches are further distributed, which can lead to an epidemic. Previously, a huge number of people, whole settlements, troops died of a raped typha. In the present time, many experts began to forget about such a terrible disease, but among the homeless people there are still sporadic (isolated) cases of rapid or recurrent titles. Hardwoods on clothes. The bites of the wrench on the inner surface of the thigh. Chides of the wrench on clothing. Calculation of wraising lice and emergency room in sinteroneal of outerwear.
- Lobonic Pediculse (FTIRIAZ) - affects the field of genital organs, anal hole, with pronounced wrappers - the hair cover of the armpits, eyelashes, eyebrows. Basically, the pubic pediculosis is manifested by itching in the pubic area or anus. Itching can not be particularly disturbed, the skin is addictive to parasites quickly, but often accompanied by a feeling of burning in the field of mucous membranes of external genital organs. With the defeat of the eyelashes or eyebrows, it is seen in the eye in the eye, the income as the droplets are located closer to the skin of the century, the lice is easily visualized on the skin of the face. Lobonic pediculosis. FTIRIAZ on eyelashes. Rash and breaks on the scrotum with pubic pediculose.
When can I suspect an epidemic * raw tit (Rickettsia causative agent)?
- acute principle
- Fever up to 41. оWith, tyifoid character, that is, a constant increase in temperature for 14 days,
- Praised chills
- The appearance of specific rashes (red spots), especially on the skin of the abdomen (3-4 days after the start of fever),
- partial or complete loss of consciousness, inhibition, delusional state, violation of speech,
- Heart damage (infectious beard endocarditis).
When can I suspect the epidemic * return title (pathogen - Borrelia)?
- Tiffoid fever up to 40 оWith a duration of up to 1 week, then - normalization of temperature, and after a week, the return of fever (hence the name of the return tit),
- chills alternate a feeling of heat and increased sweating,
- nausea, vomiting, stool disorder,
- hallucinations, delusional state, possibly a violation of consciousness,
- rashes on the skin all over the body, more on the skin of the abdomen,
- Loading liver, spleen, lungs, hearts.
* The rapid and returnful types are called epidemic, if the vessels are the carriers of their pathogens.
Pediculosis in young children?
Children of early age, namely, children up to 3 years old Pediculosis is sick often, which is associated with special hygiene and child care, as well as minimal contacts with other people and the environment. The leaders in incidence of pediculose are children from 3 to 12 years, that is, organized in children's teams.
But in families where the "gift" brought a senior child or in asocial families, where the whole family is "cooked", a pediculosis is found at this age. And moreover, early children are very attractive for skin parasites, sinceChildren's skin has some features:
- more tender and thin,
- Thin hair,
- less skin fat in the scalp
- Increased skin moisture.
These features of the skin allow the lice easily to contact the skin, cling to the hair, put down the inclination, grow and develop.
Early children in 99% of cases suffer from the heads. Lobo and wraits are rarity, although, in special cases, and they can be revealed in this age contingent.Increased immune reactivity
(Answer immune cells on a foreign protein, that is,allergy
) In early childhood, it contributes to a brighter manifestation of pediculosis symptoms: itching, rashes, combs. And on the less developed hairproof, the lice and shorter are becoming more visible.The first symptom of pediculosis in children is most often it is
. Therefore, at the first scratches, the child should be carefully considered to carefully, in order to find parasites and GNIDs to find, it will be useful to use the scallop, the procedure is better to spend over a light cloth.
Treatment of pediculosis
Treatment of any type of pediculosis should be thorough and complex.Therapeutic measures include:
- Medical treatment,
- personal hygiene,
- Processing of things, bed linen, household goods and premises,
- Prevention of recyclability.
Sanitary processing of "stiffness", especially with a common process, a wrapping pediculose, is better to be carried out in special institutions, under the control of epidemiologists of the sanitary and epidemic service. But, in most cases, it is possible to successfully withdraw the lice and at home.Important!
The use of old folk methods, such as kerosene and vinegar - ineffective, do not kill shorts, and can harm skin, especially children's (chemicalburn
, allergies, severe skin dry), lead toacute poisoning
with lesion of liver and kidney, and can also provoke the development of bronchological syndrome (the narrowing of bronchi, characteristic ofBronchial asthma
Medical treatment of pediculosis
Medicase treatment is selected individually, depending on the degree of propagation of parasites and the GND, the type of lice, the age of the patient, individual tolerance of drugs, the presence of allergies.
Preparations that kill insects are called insecticides (insecta from Latin language - insect), and insecticides in relation to lice are called pediculicides.
Recently, due to frequent independent (not always correct) use of insecticides against lice, parasites have stability or resistance to them, that is, they cease to act.
|Insecticide||Forms of release||Mechanism of action||When are you prescribed?||How are you prescribed?|
| Permeter: ||Lotion 0.5%, cream 1%, cream shampoo.||Act on the nervous system of lice, paralyzing them (neurotoxic effect). Permethrin active with respect to adult individuals, nymph and GNID. Recently, the lice is accustomed to performer, therefore, if the procedure has been ineffective, it is necessary to replace insecticide.||Head pediculosis and fatiriasis. The drug is contraindicated with the addition of secondary infection on the skin as a result of combing, pronounced skin damage.||A cotton tampon is applied to the roots of the hair or a hairpiece, affected by pubic lines, carefully labeled, cover with a handkerchief. Lotion is left for 40 minutes, and the cream is 10 minutes. After that, the hair is well washed with shampoo and dried. If single living parasites are again seen, then the procedure must be repeated after 1 week.|
| Malation: ||Emulsion, shampoo.||It has a combination effect. In addition to the impact on the nervous system of the parasite, the drug passes through chitin and accumulates in the insect body. As a result, Malathion is embedded in the enzyme system of Versia and poisoning it. This effect of the drug is called the contact poison.||Head pediculosis. The drug kills adults, larvae and eggs. Effective with strong assuming and in the case of the development of resistance to the drugs permethrin.||Shampoo applies on wet hair, rub well, and then covered with a handkerchief. Leave for 5 minutes, and then wash off well. With strong assuming, it is better to use two forms of the drug at the same time: first the emulsion is applied for 30 minutes, then twice wash the shampoo, each time leaving on the hair for 3-4 minutes. When identifying single individuals, it is necessary to repeat the procedure in one week.|
|Reed - Combined Permitin + Pirenonyl Boucoxide||Shampoo||Acts on the nervous system of lice, and pyperonyl butoxide acts on the enzyme system of the Wrench, improving the penetration of Permitina.||Head pediculosis. Acts living individuals and incoming.||The shampoo is applied to the scalp, they leave the scarf for 10 minutes, then they are good to wash off. Be sure to repeat the procedure in a week.|
|PLUS-PLUS - combined drug Permititrine + pirenonyl butoxide||Spray can||The drug acts on lice as a neurotoxic and contact poison, and pyperonyl butoxide improves the penetration of malastion and permititrine into the body of the Wrice.||Head pediculosis. Active in the ratio of living individuals and GDID. It is impossible to apply for the treatment of children under 2 years and 6 months. Allergic reactions to the drug are possible.||Aerosol is applied to the hair and hair for 10 minutes, then washed with shampoo.|
|Spray Pax - Combined Preparation Pyrethrum Extract + Pirelonyl Butoxid||Spray can||Pyreus extract is a vegetable component, it has a neurotoxic effect to the lsham, and the pirenonyl enhances its action.||FTIRAZ (pubic pediculosis). Cannot be used in the presence of precipitation.||Proceed the entire surface of the pubic, leave half an hour, then washed well with soap.|
|Sumitrine:||Shampoo||Pyreus extract acts on the nervous system of the parasite. The drug is reinforced with pyreminon boutocide.||Head pediculosis. Affects the parasites themselves and on the nis.||Shampoo twice applied on the scalp and hair for 3 minutes, then washed. The procedure is repeated in 2 days.|
|Fenotrine, etax, parasidosis||Foaming lotion, aerosol||It has neurotoxic effect.||Head pediculosis, does not work on the shorter! Fenotrine is recommended with a small amount of lice, safe for children of any age.||Foaming lotion - apply twice for 5 minutes twice, then washed well. The aerosol is abundantly applied to the scalp, especially the nape half an hour. Repeat the procedure the next day.|
|Boric ointment||5% ointment||Destroys chitin and digestive tube of Versh.||Head pediculosis, does not act on the nicky. It has many side effects.||Ointment is applied to the scalp and hair for 20 to 30 minutes, then wash the head shampoo.|
|Paranite||Shampoo||Shampoo contains essential oils that block the breath of lice, and also have a dry effect.||Head pediculosis. They act on the lice, larvae and crides. Also improves the condition of the scalp, heals combs, improves the condition of the hair. Safe in pediatric practice for children over five years old.||Apply shampoo on the scalp and hair for 15 to 30 minutes, then wash off. The procedure must be repeated in one week.|
|Butadion||Pills||They accumulate in the blood of a person, with sucking the lies of such blood they die.||Head and wrapping pediculosis. Apply in rare cases for adults only when other methods are not available or ineffective.||0.15 g - 4 times a day - 2 days.|
The latest development in the treatment of pediculosis is complexes containing dimethicones - synthetic mineral oils (oxyfthin, adhesive, isopar). It is assumed that these means are paralyzing the respiratory system of parasites, they simply suffocate. Also mineral oils dried in lice and shortening, violating their water exchange. The efficiency of using these funds is still investigated.After processing any insecticides
It must be removed from the hair cover of dead parasites and crides. For this, thick scallops are used (the distance between the teeth is less than 0.4 mm). The head shall be divided into four sectors, and thoroughly play every strand of hair. It is better to carry out this procedure over a white cloth, for the fact that if some VSH has survived, it could be seen and mechanically destroy the parasite.
The use of the antiv ridge has proven well, which is designed specifically for the detection and removal of lice and nnid from the hair of the head, especially with a thick and long braid.
In the treatment of pubic and headings, it is effective to complete hair removal on the head or genitals. If you can hand over in the field of bikini, it is possible to go to Lysin on my head, not every man is ready, but a woman ...In case of damage to pubic lice eyelashes and eyebrows
All above, the listed insecticides are not used, it is possible to use vaseline oil, from which the sews will be chopped. At the same time, treatment will be long - 7-10 days, twice a day.Treatment of wrapping pediculosis lies in
Mandatory careful processing of things, as well as the processing of the entire body insecticides (shampoos, lotions, ointments, emulsions, aerosols), and on the living individuals and on the inclination. Medicase treatment of a wrapping pediculosis also consists also in skin treatment with anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antibacterial, healing means, since the write-entertainment leads to the development of purulentdermatitis
, dermatosis, allergic reactions.
Hygiene in the treatment of pediculosis
- Processing comb, hairpins, hair gum - It can be carried out with the help of insecticides, which were used to treat pediculosis.
- During the treatment of head pediculosis, the patient should constantly carry a headdress For preventing the spread of parasites.
- Hair care :
- Frequent washing head - But the first wash is only on the third day, and then in a day, at least a week, do not use balms, masks, hair lotions, since they cover the hair with a protective layer, and previously used drugs used for VSHS;
- Daily inspection of the head For presence in the hair of individuals of parasites and their eggs, at least 2 weeks,
- Daily combing hair Comb - up to 2 weeks.
- Compliance with hygiene measures to other family members, Daily inspection of the head
- Linen change - daily.
- Washing the body with a washcloth daily, especially when the pediculosis is wrapped.
- Digging the hairpool - If necessary, especially with a widespread intake and pubic pediculose.
- Washing clothes and hats with subsequent ironing.
- Washing with boiling and subsequent ironing bedding.
- Toy processing - soaking in boiling water for 15 minutes.
- If objects, toys, upper clothes You can not wash boiling and process , they are tightly closed into a dense polyethylene package for 10 minutes, the lice and the nozzles will die themselves.
- Treatment of mattresses, pillows, blankets - Airborne on the frost or under the right rays of the sun during the day. If this is not possible - close in airtight package for 10 days.
What clothes are dressed in the treatment of pubic or wraising lice?
- In the treatment of a wrame or pubic pediculosis, clothing should be new or non-more than two weeks.
- It is better to use clothes with a minimum amount of seams and folds, as they are hard to process.
- Changing clothes should be daily.
How to remove shorten from clothes and hats?All the clothes used during the treatment of phyrichasis or wrapping pediculosis must be processed
Insecticides (carbofosa emulsions, malathion, sulphidophos and others), then carefully wrap using boiling in soda solution, dry out on the street or in a well-ventilated room for 2 days and turn out the iron, especially inhibiting folds and seams. Gids in the fibers of clothes from such events will definitely die. And even, if dry crides in the fibers will remain, then besides the aesthetic, there will not be no trouble.
What should be cleaning in the house?
- Cleaning in the house is important only with strong assuming, and with a small amount of lice, a wet cleaning is sufficient, a weak acetic solution can be used for this.
- In the case of strong assuming, cleaning with the processing of chlorophosomes (5% aqueous solution), carbofos (0.15% aqueous solution), 5% doors.
- Insecticide carpet treatment is important, relevant for children's teams, where children play palaces.
- If necessary, such cleaning can be repeated after 10 days.
- It is possible to carry dry cleaning of upholstered furniture and curtains.
What needs to be done to avoid repeated pediculosis?
- Regular inspection of the head of a person who suffered a pediculosis and all other family members.
- Complete combing of dead lice and GDID after head treatment insecticide.
- Repeated processing insecticide after 7-10 days.
- Compliance with personal hygiene and processing of things, bed linen and household items, room cleaning.
- Daily change of linen and clothes.
What needs to be done not to infect pediculosis at all?
- Compliance with personal hygiene measures:
- washing head and body at least 1 time per week,
- Regular change of clothing, its mandatory washing, preferably, with ironing iron,
- combing hair (at least two times a day),
- regular hair haircut,
- Use only personal accessories of hygiene: comb, hair gum, hairpins, washcloths, and so on, not to share them for use by other people,
- Avoid close contacts (head to the head) with other people, especially not familiar,
- Avoid random sex contacts.
- Periodic headway inspections in children's teams , as well as in other organized teams, including hospitals, prisons, and so on.
- Neat attitude to clothing and bedding:
- Regular cleaning (washing, venting, dry cleaning) of outerwear, upholstered furniture,
- wearing only your clothes, especially hats,
- Regular bed linen change, his wash,
- Use of personal hats in the baths, pools,
- Use your bed linen in dubious hotels, trains.
- If nevertheless has been detected with a patient with pediculosis:
- You can handle the head some Insecticides for prophylaxis , at what, they do not need to wash off after applying: Permemirin or Malathion preparations,
- essential oils Effective for the prevention of pediculosis (for example, parenchate, oregano oil, tea tree, lavender), they can be added to hair care products or drip at the ear when hiking in public areas,
- For constant prevention Pediculza You can use hair care complexes that contain dimethions - means, with mineral oils (oxyfthin, adhesion, isopar and others).
But no method of preventing pediculose is 100% effective, since we cannot isolate from the world around, and parasites can wait for us anywhere and at any time.Be healthy, and so that none of you do not spoil your mood!
Pediculosis - One of the most common parasitosis of human skin and hair, the development of which is due to the infection of lies. The lice belongs to the boned ectoparasites that feed on human blood. In the place of the insect bite there is a small redness, itching. To the hair at a distance of 5-6 mm from the skin, an adult insect sticks whitish oblong eggs - shorts. In the launched cases, the exudate from the wound in the fields of bites and combs gluits her hair into a koltun, under which a large number of insects live. To diagnose the disease, inspection of the patient's skin and clothing is used. Treatment involves the use of facilities with pediculicide action.
Pediculosis (stitching) is found in all countries of the world. Every year 6-12 million people are infected with lice. Real figures are much higher than official, as most of the sick prefers to be treated independently. Pediculosis is striking people of all ages, but the greatest number of cases are detected in adolescents. Girls are infected more often than boys, because they tend to use other people's combs and other items through which parasites can be transmitted, prefer closer physical contact when communicating. The number of cases of lesion in lush is stably higher in the warm season.
Causes of pediculosis
The disease causes a head, wrapping (native) and pubic loss, or a delicate. All types of parasites take place three stages of development: Gidida (egg), nymph (young individual), adult insect. The transfer of ectoparasites is possible due to the mobility of insects, their ability to live without a feeder. The main ways of infection include:
- Contact with assuming person . Adults of insects can fall from one person to another during close interaction. Head and wrapping pediculosis are transmitted from carriers to healthy persons in places of considerable crowdability of people, kindergarten groups, school curriculum. Damplot infection occurs mainly during sexual intercourse.
- Transmission through household items . The development of arthropods occurs at a temperature not less than 22 оS. On the surrounding items, the GDID preserves vitality of 10-12 months. Infection with a parasite occurs when using common hats, scarves, comb, bed linen. Artistic insect is well swimming, so high risk of infection in the pools.
The predisposing factors of the development of pediculose are the Comcommunication, the overpopulation of the premises, belonging to the socially disadvantaged group. Insufficient hygienic care, stresses are not associated with seeriness. Parasites are equally established on clean and dirty hair. The level of stress can reduce the body resistance to infections, but the immune system cannot be destroyed or somehow limit their vital activity.
Switch feed on blood. The number of bites per day reaches 5-6. The duration of each feeding is 10-15 minutes. During the bite in the wound, the saliva of an insect is hung, which contains a substance that prevents blood coagulation. Protein and other components of chlenifier saliva are alien for the body. Their penetration into blood causes the reaction of the immune system. Sensitization is manifested by itching, redness of the skin at the place of bite.
Spacious skin damage is an entrance gate for a secondary infection. Microorganisms that normally live on the skin cause an inflammatory response. Exudate, released from infected wounds and places of combs, gluits a strand of hair. A chatun is formed, or the so-called "Polish fold", under which the optimal conditions for active breeding of insects are created.
The view of the parasite determines the main method of its transfer, the clinical picture of the disease, effective methods of treatment, the likelihood of the development of complications, their degree of gravity. Depending on the type of pathogen, 4 variants of the disease are distinguished:
- Head pediculosis. Vershi living on the head, small. The length of their body is 2.5-3 mm. With the help of special hook-hooks on the legs, they quickly move through the hair. The size of the GDID is 1 mm. After 8-10 days, a young person comes out of the incomer - a nymph, which after another 2 weeks acquires the ability to multiply.
- Harding pediculosis. Hardwoods are much larger than the heads. Their length ranges from 2 to 5 mm. They are numerous. Adults are inhabited by clothes, go to the body only for bloodsucm. The nits are attached to the powder hair on the body. An adult individual can live without a feeder for 3 days, low ambient temperature prolongs the life of the parasite to 7 days.
- Fitter pediculose (FTIRIAZ) . The paws of the blisters are equipped with special tweezed clamps. Using clamping clamps is held on thick and hard hair. Parasite body length is 1-3 mm. Females larger males. No food, the insect dies within 24 hours.
- Mixed invasion . At the same time, two or three types of arthropods can parasitize on the human body. Most often occurs the association of head and wraising lice. Meanous sexual bonds cause simultaneous infection by wrapping pediculosis and aircraft. This contributes to close contact, the use of one bed linen.
Symptoms of pediculosis
Head lice is found throughout the scalp, but more often in the area behind the ears and on the back of the head. Write's wraits live on any of the body sections, where there are guns hairs, in the folds of clothing. Their favorite localization is the groin area, the front surface of the chest, the axillary depressures. Plugs most of the time spend, attaching to the coarse hair of the anogytital region. In connection with the growth of the popularity of oral sex, the pubic lines are sometimes found on eyebrows and eyelashes.
The main manifestation of pediculosis is itching in areas affected by lies. Itching increases at night, leads to leather massacres. A significant amount of parasites, the active response to bites often cause an increase in regional lymph nodes, an increase in body temperature to subfebrile values. A long course of the intake pediculose leads to the appearance of dryness of the skin, peeling, the spread of foci of buoy hyperpigmentation throughout the body. In places of linear combs and significant damage to the skin bite, scars may appear.
The seats of intricate and head lice bites are converted into erythematous papules with a diameter of up to 4 mm, located on an inflamed base. The damker leaves behind the bluish blue spots. Pressing on maculus does not change the character of its coloring. This is due to the features of the enzyme composition of the saliva of the Damiers. Protein saliva components form insoluble compounds with hemoglobin blood, which impregnate the skin and subcutaneous tissue.
The main complications of pediculose are sleep disorders due to itching, increased irritability and nervousness. Infecting the wound at the fields of bites becomes the cause of the development of pyodermia. In children, unbearable itching can provoke continuous crying. The addition of an allergic reaction causes the appearance of rashes and edema in the places of the largest accumulation of ectoparasites. Parasitization of lice on eyelashes and eyebrows can cause blepharitis or conjunctivitis.
A hazardous complication of a wrapping pediculosis is a rapid tit - a sharp infectious disease, which is caused by bacteria from the genus Rickettia. It is characterized by a rash, fever, violation of the cardiovascular, nervous system. The disease occurs extremely difficult, with deliries, thrombosis, thromboembolism. The probability of death in the acute period of the disease is not excluded and during recovery.
In the started case, identify the pediculosis is easy. The characteristic clinical manifestations are indicated about infection. It is much more difficult to detect the focus of assuming in the teams in a timely manner when a few arthropods still do not even make themselves felt. Diagnosis of pediculosis is carried out according to the following scheme:
- Inspection of skin. According to the characteristic Papula and Maculam, it is possible to suspect the presence of ectoparasites and suggest to what kind of type they relate. During the inspection, excorifications, foci of inflammation, phenomena of lymphadenitis are detected. At this stage, you can conduct differential diagnosis of stuffing with scabies, impetigo.
- Detection of lice. An inspection of the hair portion of the body, the patient's clothing, if possible - bed linen. Adults of individuals and nymphs of the head and wrench are quickly moving, so they are combed with a frequent comb on a sheet of paper. On a white background, movable insects with an oblong dark body are well noticeable.
- Discovery of GDID. Parasite eggs are attached to the hair at a distance of 3-4 mm from the skin surface. Easy the process of their detection allows the Wood lamp, in the rays of which the nicks are fluorescent. The slit lamp in dermatology is used if you suspect the infection with wrappings, dams. So insects are becoming more visible on eyebrows, eyelashes.
The pubic lice is associated with the patient's inseparation in the choice of sexual partners. The detection of detectors in adults is an indication for appointing additional analyzes for STIs. In children, pubic pediculosis, especially when the eye detection in the area of the eye, indicates sexual violence and requires connecting to the work of law enforcement officers.
Treatment of pediculosis
In the focus of infection, all contact persons are examined. Preventive treatment is appointed to all who closely communicates with patients with pediculosis. The identification of the case of pubic pediculosis requires the appointment of pediculicide drugs to the sexual partners of the disease. Pediculose treatment is mandatory include hygienic measures. Medical therapy implies the appointment of drugs from the following pharmacological groups:
- Pyreteroids. Lotions, permethrine shampoos - the most common means to combat stitching in the world. The only drawback of these drugs is the widespread development of ectoparasite resistance to pyrethroids, which serves as one of the reasons for the growth of the number of diseased pediculose in developed countries.
- Systemic anthelmintic drugs. Drugs based on albendazole, ivermectin, levomyol are appropriate to apply in cases where local treatment is not effective or pediculose is detected simultaneously with the glitstic invasion. Anticline drugs are prescribed 10 days after local treatment.
- Phosporganic connections. Pediculose treatment is carried out by Malathion, Fentiode preparations. The effectiveness of malathion in relation to all forms of ectoparasites is higher than that of Fention. Above it is toxic effect on the human body. The purpose of the drugs is carried out taking into account the age of the patient, possible contraindications.
- Benzylbenzoate. Local uses with benzylbenzoatom are appropriate to prescribe for the treatment of pediculosis, resistant to pyrethroids. Tools have high insecticidal activity, which expands the list of readings to use.
- Polydimethylsiloxanes. High molecular weight silicon-containing polymers (silicones) do not have toxic effects. The destruction of ectoparasites is due to the physical effect of silicone: the substance penetrates through the breathing holes in the trachea, the tracheola insect, displaces the air from them.
- Essential oils. A sufficiently high concentration of a number of oils destroys nymphs of lice and adult individuals. Nights to the action of essential oils are insensitive. Limits the use of drugs sharp smell, local oil effects, high risk of developing allergic reactions.
Without hygiene events in a hearth, only temporary deliverance from ectoparasites can give treatment. It is especially important to purify from artiform surrounding items in case of wrapping pediculosis. Things with which contacts the patient with pediculosis are soaked in hot water for 5-10 minutes. Home textiles must be wrapped. All rooms need to be thoroughly speaking, and then treated with insecticidal solutions.
Prediction and prevention
Pediculosis refers to the number of diseases that do not affect the life expectancy. Treatment, subject to selection of drugs destroying insects at all stages of development, leads to curable. Reduce the risk of re-infection allows hygienic control, examination and treatment of contact persons, maintaining order and purity in the dwelling. In organized teams, selective and mass examinations are carried out in order to prevent the outbreaks of pediculosis. Individual prevention of infection involves the use of personal items of hygiene (combs, towels), clothing, bed linen.
What are Vershi come from
- 1. What is a pediculosis
- 2. From what the sews appear: the main ways of transmission
- 3. From what are Vershi in adults
- 4. What are the seals from children
- 5. Basic myths and unlikely infection methods
- 6. How to protect yourself from infection with lshami?
- 7. Who is in the risk group?
- 8. Is it possible to re-infection?
- 9. Folk remedies for lice
- 10. Prevention
- 11. Effective treatment
Infection of lies is known to mankind over the centuries. Contrary to delusions, it may even have the most chopped and neat people. Noticing or his child of parasites, a person may be perplexed, from which the lice appear if he follows all the rules of hygiene.
What is pediculose
Pediculosis is an infectious disease resulting from close contact with an infected face. It is manifested by a strong itching in the area of the scalp, appearance on the hair of white-colored parasites (GDID), and on the skin of breaks and yasers. Children are more susceptible to infection than adults.
Vershi is insect-parasites that feed on human blood. A large number of bites provokes itching. Parasite's life cycle is about 35 days. The female decides daily 4-5 eggs, so the reproduction of parasites is very fast. The human body temperature is optimal for the vital activity of lice, outside it they die quickly, because food is deprived. From the head of the parasite on the head and the appearance of the first signs (itching) usually passes 2 weeks:
In the absence of treatment, the number of parasites increases. A person is unpleasant itching that he adversely affects his dream, mood and general well-being. With a large number of parasites, the hair begin to look untidy, an unpleasant smell appears.
What are the sews from: basic transmission methods
The probability of infection does not affect the observance of hygiene, lifestyle or human health. Consider what VRSH is breed and how to reduce the risk of infection:
What are Vershi come from adults
The main ways of infection of the parasites of an adult is:
- • close contact with infected person;
- • long stay in public transport at rush hour;
- • contact with objects of clothing, pillowcases and other bed linen of the patient;
The risk of infection increases with contact with asocial personalities, as well as in unsanitary conditions.
What are the Vershi in children
Children aged 2-14 years are the most common category of patients with pediculosis. At this age, children spend a lot of time in direct contact with each other, taking part in the games. Symptoms of the disease in children are similar to symptoms arising from adults. Especially often infection occurs in children's preschool institutions, where there is a large number of kids on a relatively small territory.
Basic myths and unlikely infection ways
Despite the fact that pediculosis is a common disease, it is associated with many myths who are trying to explain from which the lice there are, but they do not have grounds.
- 1. The lice appear on a dirty head. The cleanliness of the hair does not matter, parasites absolutely do not care where to eat blood.
- 2. The lice arise as a result of a strong stress. Since we are talking about parasites, the psychological state of a person has no relation to the disease.
- 3. You can get infected from pets. Wrench parasitis only on man.
- 4. The lice does not happen without itching. In fact, it does not always occur this symptom, but only in 14-36% of cases. To detect parasites, you need to inspect your head.
- 5. Vershi can "accidentally" fly or jump over. This type of insect does not know how to jump and fly, although quickly moves.
- 6. Safety complication of pediculosis is a rapid tit. This is an incorrect statement, in our time this disease is practically not found.
There are also unlikely ways of infection, for example, through comb, hairpins, hats of an infected person, when visiting hairdressers or spa salons.
How to protect yourself from infection with lshami?
Unfortunately, there is no absolutely effective way to avoid infection. The main method of preventing pediculosis is the observance of the distance with people who can be infected and a thorough check of the head of the field of possible contacts.
Children visiting kindergartens and school are regularly verified for the presence of parasites in the hair. This is a planning of medical workers in order to prevent mass lesion. Parents should also be attentive to their children's health.
Who is in the risk group?
As already noted, children under 14 are most often infected. The risk group also includes people who are staying for a long time in the crowded conditions: students of boarding schools, military personnel in barracks, prisoners in places serving the sentence.
Is it possible to re-infection?
Yes, it is possible that a person continues to contact with an infected person. Typically, children are subject to re-infection, especially in cases where parents are withdrawn by lice, not reporting parasites an educational institution that a child visits. If a person has discovered or a child of unnecessary guests, an effort should be made to establish a source of pediculosis, otherwise the infection will repeat.
It is impossible to treat infection as a sign of non-compliance with hygienic rules. Pediculosis is a disease that everyone may be subject to, and it must be stopped, not allowing new foci of infection.
Folk remedies for lice
Washing heads using conventional hair care shampoos will not help get rid of parasites, more efficient methods will be needed. Folk medicine has in its arsenal a multitude of treatments that can be quite effective.
The main goal of treatment is the complete elimination of lice and GNID. This requires not only the treatment of hair and scalp, but also careful combing hair with a special comb. Such a procedure is needed in order to eliminate the GDID on the hair (especially relevant for girls who do not want to part with long hair).
Combining is carried out on a slightly wet hair, strand for strands for at least 30-40 minutes, taking into account the density and hair length. The procedure must be repeated several times until the GDID is complete. The usual comb or massage brush for combing is not suitable, a comb with frequent cloths with notches. It allows you to comb the cuts from the hair without damaging their structures.
Folk remedies are easy to use, do not require significant financial spending, demonstrate efficiency if the sews have been identified immediately after infection.
The fastest and radical method of dealing with lice is a shave of the head. The absence of hair cover deprives the parasites of their natural habitat. But this method is not suitable for girls and women.
The most proven time methods include:
- • head treatment with citric acid or vinegar diluted with water;
- • washing the head of economic, dust or arable soap;
- • application of cranberry juice on the skin;
- • elimination with the help of a mustache-acetic mask, which is prepared from diluted with water 9% vinegar and mustard powder;
- • Processing of the scalp with dichlofosomes or kerosene.
Most funds require multiple use. Kerosene and dichlofos are more efficient because they overlap the oxygen to parasites. But to use similar treatment methods is needed with maximum caution to avoid burning the scalp and risk of allergic reactions:
Vinegar and cranberry juice can adversely affect the hair, causing their dryness, fragility and lifelessness. The injection of vinegar to the spicy places can cause physical pain and additional suffering, especially if we are talking about a child.
Thus, the use of folk remedies is permissible only if for any reason there is no possibility to take advantage of more reliable ways.
In order to minimize the risk of infection with parasites, the following preventive measures should be observed:
- • Avoid contacts with people whose cleanness does not cause confidence;
- • regularly inspect a child's head attending school or kindergarten;
- • regularly change bed linen;
- • Do not use other people's clothes or clothing;
- • Make the pigtails to girls (on the lucumber hair of the lice are moving faster);
It is believed that parasites are afraid of odors of tea tree, mint, geranium. You can wash your hair against these plants, but absolute protection such funds do not guarantee.
Contrary to delusions, the low air temperature does not contribute to the death of the lice, since even with a strong frost, the skin temperature of the head remains at least 36 degrees. But a long stay in the frost without a headdress is fraught with the appearance of other infectious diseases.
Today, effective drugs come to replace the folk remedies that eliminate lice and GDIDs after one application and belong to low hazard compounds.
Effective means of combating pediculosis include "pairs". Its action is based on the combination of demethycon and mineral oil. When applied to the hair, there is a blockage of the respiratory tract of lice and GNID, which causes their fast death.
Advantages of the preparation "Paired":
- • provides a powerful blow to parasites without leaving them a chance;
- • Easily applied to hair and is distributed over the entire length;
- • does not have toxic;
- • For hair processing, enough of 10 minutes (depending on the form);
- • produced in various forms - spray, shampoo, lotion;
- • does not provoke stability in lice and GND, it can be recommended for reuse;
- • "Penitis Sensitive" is suitable for children from 1 year old, pregnant and nursing women.
After use, the means is easily washed off from the hair, for more thorough cleansing, the shampoo-conditioner "Parenchit" can be recommended. Mineral oil in the composition contributes to mitigating the skin of the head, giving the hair softness and silkiness.
The timely detection of parasites and careful treatment with the help of the "parench" quickly and safely for a person eliminates lice and eliminates itching and other unpleasant symptoms.
The likely reason for which the head of your child began to hide - the head of the lice or shorter, will get rid of which households are quite simple: professional drugs or folk methods will help with the parasites. Take about it and talk.
What do head lice and shortening on a man look like
The head lunch is a bloodsinkled parasite feeding human blood. Wednesday (area) of habitat is limited. She can live exclusively on her hair (hence such a name) is a necessarily condition. They can not fly and jump.
The insect looks quite specifically, which helps to distinguish it from other parasites. Visually this is a transparent harsh bug with six legs. In length reaches 3 - 4 mm. It can not penetrate the skin and live outside the body of the carrier. During the disease, no inclination is found. They look like white cocoons (eggs), tightly attached to the surface of the hair straightened.
The reproduction of parasites is quickly, but only under favorable temperature conditions. An adult person lives on average about 40 days, and the female begins to postpone the eggs from the first days in the presence of favorable conditions. The cycle of insect development is presented in several stages: an egg - the yield of the nymphs (larvae) - growing up.
How many lice live outside the head? They cannot live without a carrier for a long time. A temporary maximum - two days under normal temperature conditions. It is this time that bloodsuckers can be in search of a new carrier. In the conditions of decline in temperature indicators to + 10 ... + 12 degrees, the fasting period increases to 10 days.
On the body of a person can live and fade by hardening (linen) and pubic louds. The main difference between them from the headwrench is to choose the main habitat.
What diseases can carry
Head lice can become a distributor of serious diseases. It:
- Return and Return Tiff;
- Volyn fever and some others.
It is important to know that they do not tolerate AIDS and hepatitis.
Where do Vershi come from on the head of man
The reasons why human parasites appear in humans, a little. They do not know how to fly - they are cool, - can not jump and run quickly. But at the same time, no one is insured against the diagnosis of pediculosis. Therefore, it is important to know how infection may occur.
The only reason for infection is the transmission from a sick person to healthy, since the main power source of parasites is human blood. At the same time, the transmission methods are a huge set.
It is important to remember that from nowhere to the heads do not appear. They can not be in anabyosis, hiding under the skin, or transmitted from pets.
Possible ways of transmitting parasites
There are many transmission options, but the lead is close contact with a sick person. Infection can occur:
- during an embrace with a kiss;
- sexual contact;
- during a joint game;
- With random contact with hairstyles, etc.
In a child, head parasites can start as a result of joint games or close communications with an infected friend. In the children's team, they spread instantly. At the same time, the emergence of insects in the child is not related to non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene. They appear on clean, and on dirty curls.
Parasites appear and thanks to other transmission methods. Man infection can occur in the following ways:
- Adults, as well as crides and nymphs fall on the hairstyle through jointly used things - combs, pillows and towels;
- Bathing in the same water. The heads of the lice appear in a healthy person after taking the bath, in which it was infected before him. Insects do not die after entering the water, and safely moved to the hairstyle of the new carrier;
- Sharing hats. Especially popular similar method of transmission in children. After the child tried the cap of an infected friend, the appearance of bloodsuckers inevitably.
Children - the main risk group
The risk of infection with the heads of the head of the heads are chosen. There are several reasons:
- Failure to follow the rules of personal hygiene. In a child, bloodsuckers can appear as a result of using one comb.;
- Close contact with each other. The child because of his age is sociable. The kids prefer collective games in which the contact of hairstyles is almost inevitable. And if one of them has invested, then in a short time, the whole team is infected;
- Increased frequency of close contacts with peers. The child has a circle of communication wider than in an adult, and the risk of close proximity to the disease carrier often increases several times;
- No selectivity. The child with the same pleasure will play with the baby both from a prosperous family, and poorly well-groomed (and even a vagabag).
Signs of the appearance of lice
If a child's head lice appeared in a child or adult, the symptoms of their presence are not immediately manifested. In the initial stage, the disease proceeds almost unnoticed. And, nevertheless, the first signs of lice on the head are available.
The first sign capable of pointing to infection is a slight itching of the head (fixed in the first weeks). The desire to scratch occurs in the bite places. When the skin is a skin cover, the carrier feels a light injection, and after the start of the enzyme action occurs.
When parasitizes only a few individuals, patients do not pay attention to the bites and scratching. But when it receives damage simultaneously from several tens of head parasites, it becomes unbearable.
But itching does not always indicate the presence of bloodsowing "subtles". The symptom will be desire again and again, even after washing. Unbearable becomes sensations at night.
If the baby got infected, then the child becomes capricious and begins to cry without visible reasons.
Irritation and traces of bites
If you inspect the head of infected, then traces of bites will be detected. Externally, they look like small red dots with a small hole in the middle. Visually bites resemble wounds applied by flea.
If the colony of the head lice is numerous, then the points of bites can merge into common stains. In some cases, they go beyond the scale.
Multiple bites cause constant itching. And as a result of combs, characteristic scratches are formed, which are covered with crusts. They are noticeable and talk about infection.
One of the typical symptoms of the disease is a bluish-gray spots formed on places of permanent feeding.
Crides and insect life
Nicky is the most obvious sign of infection. It is they who give the presence of head bloodsuckers long before their direct detection. Looking eggs like white cocoons located on separate hairs. They are most often closer to the roots, but they can be on another site.
Empty cocoons for a long time remain at the place of attachment and during the launched pediculosis, the patient's hairstyle look like a white cereal.
Insect excrement resemble black dots. You can find them as follows: Hold your hands on a hairstyle over a white sheet. They definitely crumble on the fabric and will be noticeable in the mass.
In the launched cases of pediculosis, the following symptoms may appear:
- Accession to the breaks of secondary infection, which threatens the bundle of the wound;
- nervous disorders;
- problems with sleep;
- The formation of chatunins.
It is worth noting that such symptoms are typical for the launched form of the disease. And it is extremely rare (the exception is the bomberry people).
How to get rid of lice on the head
How to treat at home Pediculosis? To get rid of parasites, it is enough to go to the nearest pharmacy and acquire one of the proposed funds. At the same time, it is important to pay attention to the composition of the drug.
It is important to remember that in addition to the head of the Wrench, the wrapper and pubic parasit on the person. Therefore, for processing, you need to choose a means designed to get rid of the specific type of insects. So, the wrapping and pubic loss cannot be removed by drugs intended for head insects.
Lotions and concentrates
The means of this category are aqueous or alcohol insecticidal solutions. Help to remove insects at the expense of the paralysis of the nervous system and the subsequent death. Before starting treatment, preparations need to be prepared, but some are sold ready.
|Medifox||The tool is an insecticide concentrate with the addition of castor oil. Before processing, it is dissolved in water: 8 ml of the drug is taken on 100 ml of liquid.|
|Foxilone (lotion)||The drug has high toxicity and is capable of provoking an allergic reaction. To get rid of bloodsuckers, remove eggs and not get poisoning, it is necessary to strictly follow the instructions for use.|
|Medilis super||Effective pediculous medicine in the stability of lice to the permethrin insecticide. Helps to quickly bring the heads and remove the wrench.|
|Avice (concentrated solution)||Helps get rid of infection in one processing. The drug is not recommended in childhood (up to 5 years) and during the baby tool.|
Shampoos from wedge
Shampoo treatment is effective with a lush and thick hairstyle. To bring insects during washing the hair is much easier, since the format of the drug guarantees the means and on the skin of the head.
Concentrated solutions shampoos are distinguished by a reduced percentage of aggressive components. Therefore, they can be used for hair wash in small children.
|Pedilin||The drug helps to quickly derive insects due to the presence in the composition of two insecticides - malathion and tetramethrin. The healing effect of processing during washing will be obtained and in the case of addictive to one of the active components.|
|Parasidosis||Treatment with the drug will not be too effective. Most often requires re-processing. The bottle is attached to the comb for combing head parasites.|
|Higi||The tool gives excellent results and allows you to get rid of insects and gyd for one wash. The drug has a lot of contraindications.|
|Shampoo LiceGuard||In the composition of drugs contain exclusively natural components. The remedy helps to get rid of the GDID, softening the shell during the washing of the chapels. Shampoo is used as a drug that facilitates the combing of the GDID.|
Processing sprays is particularly effective with a small colony of lice. Preparations help get rid of insects without causing side effects. But in childhood may be prohibited.
|Pedicial ultra||Means for the treatment of pediculosis from the Russian manufacturer. It helps to get rid of lice and remove the incomes. When used, it is necessary to strictly comply with the instructions.|
Pediculous treatment by people
How to bring home from the head by household? People's treatment is quite specific. Applied home recipes are simple and suggest the use of low-cost. But the faster the hair is cleaned, the less secure method.
Pure kerosene becomes the most popular popular method of treating the disease. The substance destroys all adult individuals, larger and shorter, but at the same time, in the process of such popular treatment, you can get a big burn. Kerosene is strictly forbidden to use in childhood.
Home Application Recipe: Pure Kerosene Divide Vegetable Oil (Proportion 1: 6) And Apply on Hair. Keep before tingling.
Fight with headparents is difficult, but you can. Home treatment will take at least three days, subject to the use of high-quality drugs.
Specific prevention of the disease is absent. Specialists recommend periodically inspecting the hairstyle of the baby and track the appearance of a typical symptoms.
Pediculosis is a disease that lies in the appearance of lice and the GDID on the hairpins of the human body - the head and genitals. Vershi are parasites that live, feed and multiply only on a person. They do not start on other species, for example, on cats or dogs, so it is impossible to infect pediculosis from pets or stray animals. The lice is transferred only from a person to a person, since it is necessary for their existence that it is human blood that they feed. But the options from where the lies are taken from a person, quite a lot. Consider them below.
What are the lice of a person
The reasons for the appearance of lice are associated with their features and lifestyle. There are three varieties of parasites living on a man and feeding it by blood:
- Headdling - lives and puts eggs on the hairpiece of the head, hair is necessary for her to move and fasten the nidget on them, the insect will not be able to move onto the head, but the eggs may well leave, sticking them to skin scales;
- Lobcovaya loss - lives in parts of the body, on which hair not only grows, but also there are apocryan glands that allocate a special secret, attractive for parasites; This is an area of genitals, around the anus, in the armpit depressures, on eyebrows and eyelashes;
- The wrapping is a specific variety that does not live on the body of a person, the eggs prefers to postpone it either not on it, but uses a person only for nutrition, leaving him to hunt, the rest of the time is hiding in clothes, bedding and accessories, other textiles.
Each of the three species lives in a strictly defined place, that is, the pubic loss will not be able to parasitize on the head, and the head - on the genitals. And they are transmitted from a person to a person they are the same: the head lover will strive to get on the head, pubic - on the genitals, dressing - on clothes next to the man.
Myths associated with the appearance of lice
There are established opinions, from which the lice appear, but almost all of them are myths, that is, they do not have any reason and do not stand criticism:
- The lice appear in those who do not keep personal hygiene. This is not quite so. The parasites themselves are not self-got on dirty. Of course, if a person is rarely clean and changes clothes, then the risk is not noticed more. But due to dirt, insects do not appear.
- Vershi is started due to stress. Again, they themselves are not born on a person experiencing stress. Psychological difficulties can lead to the fact that a person does not pay attention to the physical condition, but due to stress, pediculosis does not develop.
- Environments appear solely in persons leading the asocial lifestyle, and the "decent people" cannot be. Cise insects with the same success can all. Status and prosperity here are not defining. People with low social responsibility may not have to get rid of insects or do not consider it necessary. But the risk of infected with pediculose does not depend on the lifestyle. Versh, alas, there are in all layers of society.
Ways of infection of pediculose
The most basic way to pick up parasites is direct contact with infected. The head lunch moves from the head on the head when touched or if just passing, standing very closely with an infected person. In the hair insects move very quickly. The pubic lice go from one person to another during sexual intercourse or during sleep in one bed in close proximity.
The second way - when using personal things infected. Wrench can be in a variety of items:
- clothes and underwear;
- Combs, hairpins, rubber bands and other hair accessories;
- Pillows and blankets.
It is easy to pick up lice in public transport. On the seats of trains, buses, airplanes, especially on soft textile head restraints, including with individual napkins, can remain unnoticed insects that are easily moved from there to heads.
Is it possible to get infected with lsham without close contact
The lice do not know how to fly or go far, as they do, for example, fleas. But they are quite well moved along different surfaces. The insect by the power to spin the distance of 30 - 50 cm. This means that there is no need for a close contact to grab the lice. That is, a man with a pediculose could sit on a bench in the park, put his hat on it, with which he lid overwhelmed on the bench, and leave there. And the other man, crouching on this shop half an hour or an hour, can become a new victim of the insect.
It is worth saying that the risk of infection with lshams exists only on condition that the carrier becomes a female, which, when ingesting a new person, will postpone at least one egg. If you pick up a male or impaired larvae, then the disease will not develop.
In which conditions may appear
In general, the sews live outside the body of a person up to 4 days, and the income is up to 2 weeks, but these are exceptional cases. Parasites outside a person live up to two days. These insects need to eat blood 4 - 6 times a day, they cannot be without food for a long time. Also for normal existence, they need a suitable air temperature. The optimal temperature for them is 33 - 36 degrees, so the temperature of the human body is ideal for them. When decreasing up to 23 degrees or up to 40 degrees, they can survive, and with other indicators die.
At the same time, the lice is quite survived in water. For a while they can be under low load pressure, for example, under pebbles or sand. Therefore, we can conclude that the lice can be picked up on the beach. Also often worsted in baths and saunas, in massage salons, pools and other public places with, seemingly increased demands for the sanitary condition. A simple washing of the surface with water does not destroy the lice and does not guarantee that they are not there.
Where most often you can get insert
Parasites spread faster in places of increased concentration of people. The more people, the more contacts between them, the more gracious conditions for the spread of pediculosis. One person can infect dozens and even hundreds of others. Places of high risk are objects in which a person is forced to be for a long time and in which it cannot affect the sanitary condition:
- educational institutions.
Also, risk areas are:
- public transport;
- sports institutions;
Pick up the lice, however, you can in any public institution and even on the street.
Why more often, lice appear in children
The children are striking both children and adults. Children because of age are more often in close contact with other children during games or communication. Children tend to embrace more, come into contact with their heads. In addition, they are easier to exchange clothing and wearing other hats. In kindergartens and schools, in children's health camps, children are in sufficiently large quantities in a limited space, which creates suitable conditions for distributing pediculosis.
Some parents for some reason believe that the children have no need to bring out that this age phenomenon that will be held by itself. It is not true. If you do not carry out treatment, the lice on the head will lead to the appearance of hazardous combs that are infected and can cause blood infection. In addition, the child will be nervous due to a constant toide.
By the way, not all children suffer from itching when parasites appear. Or they cannot tell what exactly they are bothering. Therefore, it is important to regularly and carefully examine the head of the child, thoroughly wash and comb your hair so as not to miss the initial stage of infection with pediculosis. In early detection, get rid of lice and the GDID is much easier.
How to protect yourself from lice
As mentioned above, Vershi can hit any person. No absolute warranty. But abide by reasonable caution to protect yourself, it is necessary:
- do not use other people's things;
- Avoid contacts with a person who can be a carrier of parasites;
- After visiting the place where the lice can be, inspect the skin of the head and clothing for the presence of insects, thoroughly wash the head with an anti-step-tech, things to wash at high temperatures;
- The room in which the infected person turned out to be treated with insecticides or pediculicides, for example, Medilis Bio, Medilis-Super;
- If lice has found from one family member, it is necessary to begin treatment immediately and carry out prevention against all households.
Modern professional funds against lice allow you to get rid of them in one day. The main thing is to follow the instructions and follow the safety rules when working with them.