On November 18, 1796, the formation of the Life Guard of the Hussar Regiment began. Liche's warriors in polished cisiver, they will be horrified on Napoleonic troops. Being a hussar is a special way, the path of ministry in elite troops.one.
Where do you go?
Hussars as a military unit arose in Hungary in 1548. Gusar divisions were formed to protect against the Turks. By the time of the collection of this militia, the name "Hussars" is also rising. According to one of the versions, it is formed from Hungarian Húsz, that is, 20. Every twentieth nobleman was to enter the cavalry militia, or each twentieth of the recruits had to become a cavalurist. There are other versions of the origin of the name. So, some researchers take the word "hussar" to Latin Cursus, which is translated as "raid". According to this version, the hussars are related to Corsaras.
Later, the hussars appeared in Polish troops. Hussar shelves in the army of Stephen's time of the Batories were one of the most Grozny forces of Europe. In addition to the king, the Magnans had their own Rotami Gusar. Hussars of those times were very different from the usacon usual usual in the mentics and dolomans. He wore heavy armor, one of the important attributes were animal skins. As a rule, leopard. In addition, early hussars wore wings. Literally.2.
"Escadron Gusar Volatih" is not just a poetic image and name of the film Rostotsky. The first hussars were in the literal sense of covered. "Caps" came to the hussar divisions, most likely, from Serbian mercenaries who were wings. Cavalry speeches compulculated - Eleara - also wore wings. In the Dopererovskaya time, when Russian hussar shelves were formed from mercenaries, their attribute was also wings. Witnesses of the Parade Parade of the Shelf on May 18, 1654, so described Russian hussar: "Colonel Rylsky led 1000 hussar, uniform in the Polish pattern, with drums and swears. His horse had: on the head of Sultan, on his back wings and expensive, flashed gold chaprak. "
There is no one opinion about the appointment of such unusual attributes. On the one hand, the winged hussars were supposed to guide the superstitious horror on the enemy, on the other hand, there are evidence that the wings were not a combat attribute, but they were put on the hussars only for the time of parades and reviews.
An interesting fact: when the troops of Ivan Grozny stood under Kazan, they led them to a considerable confusion, the type of Cossacks who were stuck nearby: they were decorated with feathers and were similar, according to descriptions, rather on the Indians than the Cossacks known to us. All the same feathers, the same "bird" symbolism of the "winged man".3.
At the beginning of the XIX century, everyone wanted to become a hussar. Another thing is that not everyone could afford it. The hussar shelves were elite military units. There were taken the best. In the Soviet films of Hussara as a selection: high and statutory. In fact, there was a slightly different picture: high men were rare in hussars.
Being a housar was also obliging: one care for the form required considerable investments. Golden and silver sewing on Dolomane, a rampant lifestyle, which hussars allowed themselves in peacetime, horse content, card obligations. Finally, courtship. All this required considerable investments. In addition, the hussar who got on the path was to correspond to a considerable amount of moral (and immoral) obligations, the retreat from which death often was punishable: for the word in his pocket they did not climb, behind the dueling pistol too. Napoleonic Marshal Lann wrote: "Hussar, who is 30 years old and he is not killed - shit, not a hussar."four.
Mentik, Cyver, Doloman
Mentik - the outer wear of the hussar, which in the cold season was put on top of Dolomana, and in warm - left hanging on the left shoulder. Doloman is a short one-breasted jacket with a standing collar and cords. On the legs of the hussars wearing chakchirs, the shoes were in short boots (boots).
The most multifunctional thing of Husar was a kiver - a high headdress. Sultan was attracted to him, which, obviously, remained as the legacy of the first hussar feathers and performed in battle the identification function (there was no radio communications: in the Kiivers and Sultans, it was possible to observe the movement of the hussar volatile detachments). Hussars lived war and holy followed the principle of "all their wear with them." Its they wore just in the kivere, who had a double bottom. Things lay in Tashka (bag), and the most valuable thing - on the head - in Civer.five.
The hussars were light cavalry. They were rarely used with frontal attacks. Their "skate" was surprising and mobility, as well as, of course, absolute fearlessness. As for that, it is possible to consider hussars "special forces" or there is no disputes, but the fact that the hussars performed special tasks is not subject to doubt. That acne and the head, with whom Russian hussars spoke artillery redoubts in the Patriotic War, hit the imagination not only of our soldiers, but also by Napoleonic generals. The hussars were also indispensable at pursuit of a retreating enemy. They "sat down on the shoulders" by a retreating enemy, the cavalry skirmish just asking him into deep rear. On the way, they were defeated by the enemy of the call and horses, provisions and guns.6.
"Hussars of death"
Skull with bones is not only the notorious "funny Roger", but also a symbol of "hussars of death." The symbolism, which came from French royalist emigrants, has strengthened in Russian cavalry parts. The coat of arms with the skull and bones was approved, for example, at the Kiivers of the Alexandrian Gusar Regiment. This symbol denotes not only death, but also victory over it. This is a symbol of Calvary, Adamova head. Victory over the stability of life. Because Gusarov Alexandrian regiment was called "immortal hussars."7.
It must be recognized that the image of Gusarov was seriously distorted. In Soviet times, Gusareas tried not to remember to the Great Patriotic War, but in wartime they remembered: it was necessary to raise the patriotic spirit of the people. Piece Gladkova "Long-time" successfully walked in theaters, and the film Eldar Ryazanov simply "took the cashier."
Seriously "spoiled" the image of the Russian exhibition of the "Lieutenant Rzhevsky" of the jokes. Heroes of wars standing to the end of the protection of the interests of Russia in the city folklore are represented by Kutyls and vulgar. It's a shame even. But it was and remains in Gusary Mystery, the mystery of the shop military fraternity of the past winged man.Text
Many hussars are associated with the military cavalurists of the Army of Russia, which became famous in the war of 1812, manifes themselves as fearless, valiant soldiers. Gusar be very honorable and prestigious. Beautiful military uniform, long mustache and hair gave warriors courageous-romantic image. Who are hussars? What is the origin of the term "hussar"? What is the history of military estate in Europe and Russia? What did they become famous? What interesting facts are related to them? About all this in our article.
What is "hussar"? The value of the term
The term "hussar" has several values. The word happened from the two Hungarian words "Gus" - "twenty" and "ar" - "file". In Hungary XV century, hussars are passengerized riders.
According to another version, Gusaram in Hungary paid a military salary in the amount of 20 coins, and some philologists translate "ar" as "fee."
The meaning of the word "hussar" in the dictionaries:
- In the dictionary of foreign words, the definition: Gusar is a military cavalry military, which is distinguished by sacrificing behavior, dismissed by prudes, bold leavings.
- In the etymologic dictionary: the hussar comes from the Hungarian word "hussar" and means "twenty" and "fee", the translation of the term is associated with the Hungarian law, according to which one of the 20 recruits should have become a hussar. There is a version that "hussar" comes from the Latin "Corsair" - "Robber".
- In the dictionary of Ozhegova S. I.: Gusar is a milette cavalry soldier, originally emerged in Hungary.
- In the dictionary of synonyms: synonyms of the word "hussar" are a cavalryman, rider, primacy, monkey.
- In the Ushakov D.N.: Gusar, this is a military mild cavalry, which is characterized by a special military form of the Hungarian sample.
Where the first hussars appeared
In 1458, in Hungary, Korvin Matyash ordered the new type of cavalry, whose warriors were to fight with the Turks. The militia was created mainly from the nobles. At the same time, the law was adopted, according to which every 20th nobleman became Gusar.
Hussars in Europe
After decay in the middle of the XVI century, the Hungarian Kingdom of Hussars spread throughout Europe. In Poland, the first hussars appeared at the end of the XVI century. They were the elite parts of the heavy cavalry, where they were called exclusively nobles.
In Austria, the first hussars military units arose in 1688.
France took over the experience of the Austrian army, creating the Gusar regiment in 1693. Then the special military formation appeared in Prussia and England.
Hussars in Russia
In Russia, the first hussars were formed under the Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich, they served recruited Poles and Germans. The first mention of Russian hussars belongs to 1634, in documents of 1694, the three hussar rotations are referred to, which participated in the Kozhukhovsky campaign.
Peter I the Great created a regular army, in which foreign (at that time) the Gusar regiments disappeared. They appeared again only in 1723 and were formed from the Serbs of Austrian origin.
At the time of reign, Anna John returned to the idea of the formation of the hussar regular regiments. The immigrants from different countries came into them: Serbs, Valahov, Hungarians, Georgians. Five regiments were formed, but the different origin of warriors and various social status brought more harm to the state than good.
Everything has changed when the Board of Catherine II, when the hussar shelves began to form only from Russian soldiers and officers. It was under Catherine that the ideology of this military estate was formed, Catherine Gusari found the Russian spirit and mentality. It was they who became the prototypes of the characters in the cinema and on television, and with them the Russian person is associated with them.
In Catherine II, the Gusar regiments began to recruit representatives of the intellectual elite of that era. By 1812, there were about 12 regiments in the state, and by 1834 - 14. In 1882, the hussar shelves were renamed dragoon.
At the beginning of the twentieth century Nicholas II in order to revive the spirit of the Russian army restored the hussar shelves. He returned the name and initial form to them. In 1914, the state was 14 hussar regiments and two guards.
Surely many of the readers have heard of hussars - units of light cavalry. Nowadays, the massive popularity of the hussars acquired mainly after entering the screen of art films about the Patriotic War of 1812. However, the history of hussar is extensive than only their participation in the military events of the beginning of the XIX century.
The active participation of hussars accepted in the events in the North Caucasus, some of them moved them with their families in Kuban. Gusari were in the personal convoy of the Chagin-Hire, the last Crimean Khan and took part in his clashes with the enemies during the struggle for the throne in the Kuban with the Devlet-Gyreum. Slavic hussar regiment has been serving in Kuban for some time. In Kuban by order A.V. Suvorov was erected cordon line. Part of the line was Feldshana, the service in which hussars of the Slavic regiment carried. Subsequently, the village of Slavyanskaya, now the city of Slavyansk-on-Kuban, was named after Slavic Feldshan. On the basis of disbanded in the second half of the XVIII century. Slobodsky Cossack regiments were formed by the hussar shelves. So who is such hussars?
There are several versions of the origin of the word " hussar ". For one of them, the word comes from" gander "who had the meaning in Slavic languages besides the name of the bird is still free, flying. In another version, the word comes from Hungarian" Husz. ", i.e. twenty. Hungarian nobles created their army, arming each twentieth nobleman and combining them in the" hussar "shelves. They were dressed in national clothes, little different from the hussars of the usual form of the XIX century.
From Hungary Husar in the XVI - XVII centuries. spread across Europe. Gusar units appeared in France, Commonwealth, Prussia, Austria, Russia and other states. In Russia, the hussars are first mentioned in 1688 as part of the servicant people of the Novgorod regiment.
Presumably, the first hussar regiment in Russia was formed in 1723 as a result of the plan of Peter I to create several similar regiments from the Serbs. Serbs occupied the position of officers and Rothmisters in the regiment. The hussars were armed with sabers, a pair of pistols, a third of the personnel had Carabins. Gradually, Serbian settlers began to arrive in Russia, many of whom were in their homeland Granicarians (the analogue of the Cossacks in the Balkans) . Since 1752, the northern part of the modern Kirovograd region populated by the Serbs and other Balkan Slavs began to be called Novoserbia . In 1753, on the territory of the mainly modern Lugansk region was created Slavyerbia whose settlement also occurred by the Balkan Slavs. Most of the population of Novoserbia and Slavowy were Maloros. In general, the population of these areas was a multinational, the unifying factor performed Orthodoxy. Migrants founded fortified settlements - the Shansians and in addition to the service in the hussarians were engaged in agriculture. In general, the hussar shelves and the hussars themselves became in some way the analogue of the Cossacks and the Cossack regiments. In the second half of the XVIII century. 12 hussar regiments who have undertaken border service have been formed.
In Catherine II, Novosherbia and Slavserbia were included in the Novorossiysk province. Private borders have become state peasants and shortly assimilated with the Russian population. Some people from these lands subsequently took part in the relocation for Kuban.
In addition to the Balkan Slavs, the shelves were formed from representatives and other peoples. In 1736, divisions from Hungarians were formed, later from Georgians. Based on the regiments of the Slobodsky Cossack troops, hussars were formed.
In Husar herself, Husar was only a part of the militia and convened in the case of wars, the first regular regiment was created only in 1668 in the Commonwealth (State of the United Poland and the Lithuanian Principality) Gusar was considered the elite in which the gentry served. Their appearance was impressive - these were the Lakengers, behind which were attached huge wings. However, they were not alone to use the reception with feathers and wings - they used the Cossacks in those times. When the feathers jump created a specific sound, morally affected by the enemy.
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Real Hungarian Gusary
We have already written about Polish winged hussars in heavy armor. When these riders in armor have already become part of the story, across Europe began «Gusar Renaissance. " This time he was not connected with Poland, but with Hungary. New hussars were much closer to the kind of troops, which appeared in the middle of the XV century at the initiative of King Matthew Corvin.
Initially, Hungarian hussars were considered light cavalry. Every twentieth Hungarian nobleman was obliged to serve in a militia, which was kept at the expense of royal taxes. Húsz in Magyarsky «Twenty ", AR is a tax. Hence the famous name.
In fact, the exact origin of the term «Gusar is still unknown. There is a version that 20 riders are the smallest possible number of cavalry division in the Hungarian army, and the name comes from here. For another opinion, each land tenure was supposed to contain one hussar for every 20 taxed yard.
The first hussars were equipped with a saber and shield, as well as if they could afford it - with pistols. Of course, cavalry created as «People's Forces ", the woven armor were simply not needed - and not for his pocket.
Gusara in foreign service
The Poles borrowed a regular cavalry system from Hungarians, but their hussars were very quickly turned into a heavy connice. The specifics of numerous wars with the Turks and the Russians affected. But in Hungary, the hussars remained a light cavalry, which lasts extended until the XVII century. It was then that the first Hungarian mercenaries appeared in the French army. It happened in Louis XIII in 1625. But the habits of foreign irregular cavalry were not by the French, so after a number of scandals associated with the discipline and the looting, in 1656, Hungarian horse rots were dissolved.
The revival of the hussar turned out to be connected with the accession of Hungary to the possessions of the Habsburgs in 1687. Emperor Leopold reformed not only a new ownership management system, but also the Hungarian army. Instead of militia, regular parts appeared, among which the hussar regiment was found - still light cavalry, dressed in the national Magyar costumes.
But not all Hungarians agreed with the loss of freedom. Many warriors left their homeland and fled to a foreign land in the hope of finding the use of their military talents. Soon the hussars created in the Austrian model appeared from the French, Bavarians and Prussians.
Gusar flourishing in the XVIII century
So far, in Poland, heavy hussars survived their century as funeral teams, in the rest of Europe, the light hussar cafia was experiencing a heyday era. The XVIII century was the time of the domination of linear tactics - the basic forces of the cavalry were used either for the breakthrough of the enemy's troops - as pirassi; Either as a mobile infantry - like draguns. This is then the commander and found that the armies are strongly lacking with a light cavalry, which can be used in intelligence and for action on the enemy flanks.
Such Connections were hussars. By the middle of the XVIII century, the number of their regiments increased at times. In 1741, there were five hussar regiments in Russia, and by the end of the Board of Catherine II - already 12. The King of Prussia Friedrich II created the first two hussar regiments from among the supporters of independent Hungary to Germany. By the end of the seven-year war, their number increased to nine.
Many nations were considered unable to goose.
The Germans and Russians were good in heavy and middle cavalry, but unfastened in light. So in Prussia, and in Russia, the first hussar shelves were gained exclusively from Hungarian or Balkan emigrants.
However, it was soon that the main thing is not a national character, but preparation, so that Prussian hussars were horrified on the battlefields of the seven-year war.
The very first hussar form is the usual Hungarian national costume. In the XV century, a military uniform was not yet invented, so the soldiers went into battle in the same thing that they wore in a peaceful life. But Hungarian clothing was distinguished by a bright, unusual view: ordinary people at that time wore vests, decorated with a variety of buttons and embroidered with a braid, and nobles put on cafts with lots of gold or silver cords on the chest. Upper caftan walked to fur.
This clothing has become a prototype of a hussar uniform, well known to all by numerous films and historical pictures.
Starting from the XVIII century, until the first World Gusar form consisted of three main parts: the lower short jacket to the waist - Dolomana; the top jacket, a fought by fur, - mental; and embroidered haunted pants - Chakchir. The mentor was usually worn carelessly twinned on one shoulder, but often used as a winter form - a fur jacket, albeit a short, well warmed in the cold.
Other differences between the hussar were fur hats with high sultans, bags-cask, which were fastened to the belt. Remember the reflection of Gusar Nikolai Rostov: «Natasha, sister, black eyes. On ... Tashka ... in Tashka, come ... to fade us - who? " - They are just about this element of the form that reminded him of her sister.
Special view was both hussar boots. Unlike other cavalry regiments, the hussars used light shoes incomparable with massive boots of pirassir and dragoons.
Gusar in battle
Typical tactics of hussar - or intelligence, or volatile detachments in the rear of the enemy, or rapid strikes in the flank of the enemy position. An example of such combat use of Easy Cavalry - the battle on the Katzbach River, when in 1813 the fighting was resumed with Napoleonic France.
Bonaparte collected a new army and began to apply very unpleasant blows to allies. August 26, when Napoleon's core forces were smashed by the Russian-Austrian army near Dresden, the united army of Russian and Prussians under the command of Blucher met with the army of Marshal McDonald in Silesia.
As always decisive (I received a nickname «Feldmarshal Forward "), Blucher ordered the attack of French parts, crossed through Katbach. But the Natisk of Prussian Cavalry choke in the stubborn resistance of the French. Then the French attacked Russian parts under the command of General Fabian Osten-Saken, and the Akhtyrsky and Belarusian Hussar Shelves of Lieutenant-General Sergey Lansky suddenly hit the flank. MANUERS Cossacks, who launched in the rear, completed the defeat of the enemy, which was literally tipped over the combined attack and fled.
Hussars in Russia
The oldest hussar regiment of the Russian army is Akhtyrsky. He was created back in 1651. But for the sake of justice I must say that at that time in Russia, if they talked about hussars, only as a serious cavalry of the Polish sample. Therefore, the Akhtyrtsy was originally an ordinary Cossack regiment. In 1765, during military reforms, the Akhtyra regiment became Gusar and since then he has earned the name of one of the most famous military units of the Russian army.
The unchanged difference of Akhtyrtsev was a form of brown with gold cords. The uniform of this shelf was worn by the famous hussar and the poet Denis Davydov.
Another regiment, whose name remembers and today, - Alexandria, known under the unofficial name «Black hussars. " Their regimental song «Marsh forward, pipe calls, black hussars "! It is often executed online - all lovers of military history know her well.
Alexandrians referred place of seniority since 1776, and their old sign was the black Maltese cross with the dead head superimposed on him.
Guards hussars appeared in Russia under Catherine II - first only as the equestrian guard of the empress, and already with Pavel I, they became a full guard regiment.
The hussars still exist in the armies of some states. For example, the French in the army has four hussar regiments, which serve in armorvalery (That is, the tank troops), and the British in the service consist of royal hussars of its majesty, which are also considered a tank division.
And although the current hussars no longer bear the glittering form of their ancestors, their glorious name reminds us of the battles and victories of the past.
The edition of the editors does not always coincide with the opinion of the author.